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Dyansty existed before the Ming
They were Mongols
Yuan Dynasty
Hungry to expand
led campaigns against mongols in North
Yongle Emperor
Went on expeditions into "Southern Ocean" he went to India and as far east as Africa
Led 7 voyages in early 15th century
emporer sent him
Zheng He
China referred to as this in earlier of all
Middle Kingdom

Significance is it shows how unaware the Chinese were of any other powers
first to explore coast of Africa
Conquered Moraca
the seed of a tropical evergreen tree
The sheath of the nutmeg
flavors (pickles, etc.)
1 bag worth 7 oxen
The only place Nutmeg grew
Banda Islands

Significance is that the Banda Islands were very valuable..everyone wanted them
Originated on a 5 island chain called the Maluku Islands
2 of Islands are volcanoes
Look like nails
Preserved food and enhance flavor
5 islands north of Banda Islands 2 made out of volcanoes
Maluku Islands
Britian's first colony in world
Dutch took it over later
and gave British Manhatten
Nutmeg profit very great here
Run Island
Holy Trinity of Spices
Nutmeg, Mace, Cloves
A ship that is Arab in origin
Unique Sails
Portugues used them in search for land and timber and spread christianity
land routes dangerous
First European to get around the Cape of Good Hope in 1488 turned around after cape and went back
Bartolomeu Dias

Significance: Explorations of this time period were fueled from the Spice Trade but grew to a deeper yearn for land and new items to trade. Globalization is expanding and competition between western countries are beginning to emerge
Rounded the Cape of Good Hope in 1498 and then goes on to reach India
Vasco de Gama

Significance: Started a trading post empire. Europeans are now setting up ports all along this route and settlements are being established. People that settled here then looked for goods to profit their country.
Arabs taught this to Europeans and so now knew what time of year to sail and what sea routes were best to travel east
Monsoon/Trade winds
leader of Portugese who had the idea to create ports. Then he wanted to take over the ports. Forced ships to stop at ports and pay tax/buy pass. If you didnt have a pass Portugese would board your ship and take your goods
Alfonso d' Alboquerque

Significance: Competition for land getting more violent
Reached Phillipines in 1521
Spanish sent ships from mexico to Spice Islands

Significance: Begging of a global system there is now a new link
in 1542 5 ships to Phillipines
already a big port city b/c of Chinese Merchants...Portugese make it bigger
from 1550-1900 manila gallenons from mexico to here
trading place for spices
consumer center
Portugese conquered it
Win the Spice Trade
Had the VOC

Significance: Beginning of Dutch control b/c of smart idea of Queen
Queen thought of it
private companies worked together to get the most profit

Significance - Started a complete monopoly. VOC was sovereign and chose to execute people in order to get nutmeg Very Violent
capital of VOC

Significance - Wanted island of Ambon to grow All cloves...cloves elsewhere are destroyed
Sent by the Dutch from Ambon
find unliscensed clove trees and kill those who grew them
Hangi raids

Significane: VOC controls all important ports now and is wealthies country in 17th Century. This is the first time the "middle people" were cut out of trade.
Existed for centuries prior to Europeans. Mostly slaves were taken from western africa across the Sahara Desert and into the Middle East
lasted from 7th - 20th Century
Mostly women and children traded b/c of domestic work
Trans-Saharan Slave Trade

Significance: Europeans made the slave trade much worse than it was w/ the Trans-Saharan trade...INTENSIFIED it
Portugese mand who explored the coast of Africa looking for something new to sell/trade. He landed in Senegal of West Africa and realized the African system of slavery. He took some to Europe to sell and started the entire ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE in 1441
Antam Goncalvez

Significance: Starts the whole slave trade and led to the introduction of guns into african countries
3 steps in exchange of slaves
Spread Globalization
African leaders did it for power
1. Europeans make aliances w/ African Kings
2. Europeans anchor off the coast and the slaves are brought to them(so they dont get diseases)
3. Europeans gave goods in return
Small Island off the coast of Africa
set up a sugar plantation here as a test case
Slave System develops here(portugese)
Sao Tome
Outlawed trade of slave first in 1802

Significance: Others follow suit all in early 19th century
U.S. abolishes importing in 1808
Mid 19th denmark & britain abolish
Uncontrollable vomiting/diahhrea
ended in deah
largest cause of deah across the middle passage

Significance: Just one of the HORRIBLE things teh middle passage brought
Interior Brazil in the 17th Century
Combination of 10 villages of runaway slaves
had a king and trad. african society
had trade relations w/ plantations
Defeated at end of 17th century
Blend of African and European language. Became teh common language
took grammer paterns from Africa and European worlds

Significane: Shows the blending of cultures even if not on purpose. Also music w/ african rhythms emerged. African slaves had christianity forced upon them...selectively(voodoo)
Three corners are Europe, Africa, New world. Ships in Europe load up w/ manufactured goods. They sail to Africa and trade goods for slaves. Slaves are taken to the new world where they are sold for goods they will produce
Triangular Trade

Significance: Firmly establishes Africa into Global trade
King of the Kongo
Great religious significance he embodied GOD on earth supposedly
supreme rule w/ advisory council of elders
Led expedition down the African Coast and landed in Kongo
Traveled w/ Franciscan monks and left 4 in the kingdom to learn to communicate w/ the king
couldnt find the monks when he came back so he took kongolians with him
Diogo Cao

Significance: When Cao makes 3rd trip back in 1487 he finds the monks and returns the kongolians the two sign agreements to work together and trade
Manikongo who made agreements w/ Portuguse(Cao)
converted to christianity
Saw portugese as a good ally
Nzinga Nkuwu - John1

Significance: Portuges and Kongolians are treated as equals an alliance is made new tools introduced to Kongo
Successor to John1
Manikongo who also liked portugese and wanted technical advisors sent to the Kongo to learn things

Singificance:Kongolians are becoming dependent on portugese for new things and the portuges refused to give them boats so portuges have big advantage in trade
Portugal King who sent letters to Alfonso1 refers to alfonso as "royal brother"
King Manuel

Significance: Kongo begins to trade just slaves and the need for them intensifies in 1530 so wars began just to get slaves and relations deteriorate
Neighboring people of the Kongo that invade the Kongo in 1568

Significance: Portugese gave men and guns to defeat the Jaga so now the Kongo is in debt to Portugese and they now have GUNS
Manchus who took power from the Ming and created their own dynasty
tried to blend w/ the han culture
Qing dynasty (1644-1911)
Changes that came to China w/ the Qing dynasty
Hairstyle w/ a ponytail
wanted a system utopian society
he had ideas for peace
spread ideas from the past morally good age
popular sayings
Confucianism and Kong Fuzi (551 -479)BCE
Sayings of Confucious
Believed humans were good and helped expand confucianism and formulate what kong fuzi was saying
Believed humans were bad
Education is key
Four classes to Chinese society
5 Relationships in Chinese society
Subodinated person on the right must obey person on the left
discourages questioning innovation and competition
Ruler/Ruled subject
Older sibling/Younger sibling
Older friend/Younger friend
Women in China depended on 3 men throughout their lives
Eldest Son
Books that form curriculum to create harmonious existence
Confusion Classics
Christians that chinese thought of as freaks
If they returned to Europe they became influenctial
Decree that allowed European traders to live in part of China during 5mths of the year
No families No females
Foreigners sell low Chinese overpriced
Westerners under Chinese law
The Canton System of 1759
Executed in 1821 by chinese for murdering a chinese citizen on accident

Significance: Westerners wanted to overturn Canton system and wanted extraterritoriality
Under one's own law even if in a foreign land
no longer subjected to chinese law
Extraterritoriality 1843
Sent to Beijing and brought hundreds of gifts
Emperor recorded his trip as a tribute
offended emporor
Lord Macartney 1793

Significance: Chinese not wanting to trade they dont realize Britain's power so Britain trys to find something they will want to trade
Key to unlocking China to the west
Hoped it would stop silver drian deficit
Highly addictive
Opium (trade)1830
In charge of Canton
Stop Opium by Public Probaganda and by "grouping people"Tries to appeal to west
suspends trade and blockades canton
dumped british opium into the sea
Lin Zexu

Significane: This triggers war 1839 -1842
British have superior ships and chinese leaders are addicted to opium
complete british vicotry
It inspires china to catch up w/ west
Ends Opium War w/ British and Ends Canton System
Unequal treaty
Opens 5 more ports and gave Hongkong
Chinese pay $21million
Treaty of Nanking

Signifcance: Trickle affect for other western countries to get better trade w/ China. Leads to other wars 1842-1895
5 wars China loses them all
China has crisis of confidence cnat deal w/the ouside world on their own terms
no longer the middle kingdom
Started Taiping Rebellion
was an aspiring scholar but fails his esams and became depressed
came udner influence of christian missionaires and thoght he was brother of jesus
wanted to overthrow govt and social structure
wanted a christ
Hong Xiugan

Signficance: Emporer's army is too weak to deal w/ problem so he hast to turn to the elites
2000 year old policy is overturned
Elite who gbuilds more powerful of an army than the Qing really want
Defeats Taiping in terrible slaughter
Became very popular reformer for China
Li Hongzheng

Significane: Helped w/ Self Strenthining movement which isnt successful. Much corruption w/ scholars nad public works projects
leads to famine and flooding
Result of anti-foreign feelings of anxiety backalsh to chinese christinans
Boxer Rebellion 1898 - 1901
Believed bullets couldnt penetrate their skin if they practied martial arts

Significance: westerners have to deal w/ them and then demand $330million for sending their troops Chinese have fallen
World begins to be divided up between the west china is divided into Spheres of Influence and Qing Dynasty ends in 1911
Leader of Communists that come to power after 1911
Mao Zedong
The extension of one country's contorl over other territories
2 phases
Develops along w/ industrial evolution
focuses on settlement
Colonialism 16-19th centuries
Thinking less about settlements and more about economics
much europena rivalry
19th century Age of High Imperialism
Merchant capitalism reflects increasing importance of traders.
Governments wouold work w/ trading CO's and both would benefit
Result of High Imperialism
Need resources and markerts
Industrial Revolution
German Social Theorist wrote the communist manifesto
said it was inevitable for capitilism to be replaced
Karl Marx
Leader of October Revolution
Has some of Marx's Ideas
Launch communist revolution in Russia
Capitilim would weed out small firms and be led by bandks
In end rivalry between baks would lead to war
V.I. Lenin
British journalist whor wrote "Imperialism" in 1902 he thought imperialism was a disease to be cured
Itch for glory is human not just economics
Gave Human Motive
J.A. Hobson
Wrote Orientalism
The orient has never been treated fairly
Edward Said
Survival of the fittest
some countries fit to rule others fit to be ruled
Social Darwinism
To have to teach the world to be civilized
White Man's Burden
Started the carving up of Africa and set his eyes on the Congo region b/c its rich w/ minerals
Said he was trying to get rid of slave trade and learn about geology b/c he didnt want other stronger nations to jum in
King LeopoldII

Significane:He got the scrambel gong and ruled Belgium from 1865-1909
Sent by Leopold he's a journalist who makes treaties w/ African Leaders
Henry Stanley
Established guidelines to prevent war and is attended by leaders of Europe
No africans ever presetn
Established rules for expansion
Berlin Conference

Signficance: You now had to
Demonstrate Occupation
Set-up administration
Prove you were Authority
NorthEast Africa whose people had just come free of egyptian rule but british took over anyways and killed 60,000
Indigenous african empire from Northern nigeria
Songhai Empire
North Islamic empire blossoming of Islamic cultures
Had great deal of instability in 1740's and 50's
Dynasty of Borno
Most slaves came from these tribes
Okonkwo is from this tribe
Ibo and Yoruba
Very large Muslim Empire established by the "Holy War" from 1804-1808
Islamic Northern Nigeria
Sokoto Caliphate
Southern Nigeria was designated this in 1894 it established Indirect Rule
Niger Coast Protectorate

Significance: Made drastic changes
High commisioner of Protectorate who made drastic changes he was an army officer who served in East africa to stop trade from Kenya and was very successful
Frederick Lugard
He pushed control of coast further into Nigeria
conquer country and get all native rulers to recognize britain as protectorate
Islamic Law
Established policy of Indirect rule from 1906-1912 is in hongkong then goes back to africa and sets Unification of North and South as his goal
Frederick Lugad

Significance: Achieves Unification in 1914 and forms the nigerian council
Made up of six traditional leaders
Mirrors elder system
Were to advise Lugard of their own opininos and realy them to British government in annual meetings
Nigerian Council of 1916
Lugard's successor w/ different policies
Wanted to introduce advantages of western experience
Representative government
Economic Development
Hugh Clifford 1918-1925

Significance: Didnt trust Nigerian Council and didnt like Muslim system
wanted to split up N&S again(didnt)
came up w/ constitution in 1922
gave South a new administration council
Nigeria gets their independence after participating in WWII
South -1957 North-1959
As a whole -1960
Set in the 1850's and 60's
In southern Nigeria (Missionaries)
Ethnic Identity/Diversity in Nigeria left them unable to ever revolt against British b/c there was no Unification
Things Fall Apart by Chinua Acheba

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