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Abnormal Psychology Midterm


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characteristics that define abnormal behavior
statistical infrequency
violation of norms
personal distress
disability or behavioral dysfunction
different psychological paradigms
biological paradigm
(medical model/disease model)
the idea that mental disorders are caused by aberrant biological processes. discusses the idea of behavior genetics, often a factor in a diathesis. can use the family method, twin method, adoptees method, linkage analysis to study genetic frequencies of abnormalities.
biological approaches to treatment
mostly medication
uses the idea of reductionism (the idea that what is studied can be reduced to most basic elements/constituents, i.e. psychopathology will be nothing more than biology).
psychoanalytic paradigm
the thought that psychopathology results from unconscious conflicts in the individual. uses freudian ideas of ego, id, superego. the importance of the unconscious in creating conflict. neurotic anxiety: the repurcussions of fixation in one stage of development. defense mechanisms, repression, projection, denial, displacement, reaction formation, regression, rationalization, sublimation (not totally impt. to know).
psychoanalytic therapy
techniques to lift repression: free association, dream analysis, transference. allow patient to release repressed anxiety/anger that is causing conflicts.
humanistic/existential paradigm
insight-focused, based on the assumption that disordered behavior results from a lack of inight. client-centered, self-actualization. one must think for themselves and reflect on their behavior. therapy uses empathy.
humanistic therapy
empathy and emphasis on personal growth. work to help patients confront their anxieties, use "I" language. use of metaphor, empty chair, nonverbal cues.
learning paradigm
views abnormal behavior as learned--like other behaviors. introspection important. like behavior--we have been conditioned to behave one way. operant conditioning. modeling.
learning/behavioral therapy
behavior modification and re-conditioning, counterconditioning and exposure/ systematic desensitization. also aversive conditioning and operant conditioning (time-out).
cognitive paradigm
focus on how people structure their experiences, how they make sense of them, and how they relate thri curretn experiences to past one that have been stored in memory. idea that info fits into a schema.
cognitive behavior therapy
cognitive restructuring to change patterns of thought. change irrational beliefs to rational-emotive behavior.
beck's cognitive therapy
developed therapy for depression based on the idea that depressed mood is caused by distortions in the way people perceive life experiences. goal is to provide patients with experiences that will alter negative schema.
diathesis-stress model: an integrative paradigm
links biological, psychological, and environmental factors. not limited to one school of thought. if one shares risk factors in these different aspects, it increases the risk for developing a disorder. stress factor meant to account for how risks can develop into a disorder. idea that both stress and diathesis important for developing a disorder
define sexual dysfunction
the range of sexual problems that are usually considered to represent inhibitions in the normal sexual response cycle
four phases of human sexual response cycle
hypoactive sexual disorder
deficient or absent sexual fantasies and urges
sexual aversion disorder
more extreme form of hypoactive sex disorder. avoids all genital contact with another.
female sexual arousal disorder
persistent inability to attain or maintain sexual excitement; marked distress or interpresonal problems
male sexual arousal disorder
persistent inability to attain/maintain an erection, distress/interpersonal problems
female orgasmic disorder
absence of orgasm after a period of normal sexual excitement/distress.
male orgasmic disorder and premature ejaculation
rare; delay/absence of orgasm. persistent ejaculation after minimal stimulation and before man wishes it. distress/interpersonal problems.
a sexual pain disorder. recurrent genital pain associated with intercourse. not caused medically.
involuntary spasms of the outer third of the vagina to a degree that sex is impossible.
masters and johnson two-tiered model of sexual dysfunction
fear of performance (overly concerned about performance during sex) and spectator role (observer rather than participant). believes this factors cause dysfunctions.
believe in historical causes (religion, trauma, inadequate counseling, alcohol, biology, etc.)
some therapies for sexual dysfunction
anxiety reduction
directed masturbation
procedures to change attitudes and thoughts
skills and communication training
couples therapy
psychodynamic techniques
medical/physical procedures
what is the DSM?
the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, a complete listing of all the criteria for a psychological abnormality
axis I
all diagnostic categories except personality disorders and mental retardation.
disorders diagnosed in infancy, childhood, (learning disorders, motor skills disorder, pervasive dev't disorders, ADD, feeding/infancy disorders, tic disorders)
delirium, dementia, amnestic, cognitive disorders
substance-related (alcohol, caffeine, sedative)
schizophrenia/psychotic disorders
mood disorders (depressive, bipolar)
anxiety disorders (panic, phobia, OCD)
sexual/gender identity
eating disorders
sleep disorders
impulse control disorders
axis II
personality disorders and mental retardation
(paranoid pd, schizo pd, antisocial, borderlind, narcissistic, etc)
axis III
general medical conditions
axis IV
psychosocial and environmental problems
axis V
current level of functioning
the extent to which a classification system, or a test or measurement of any kind, produces the same scientific observation each time it is applied
interrater reliability
how much 2 judges agree about an event
evaluating the extent to which accurate statement and predctiosn can be made about a category once it has been formed. to what extent does the construct enter into a network of lawful relationships?
right to treatment
the only justification for civil commitment is treatment. nondangerous mental patients cannot be confined against their will.
right to refuse treatment
has the right to refuse treatment, but opinion of health professionals must take precedence over the right to refuse treatment when patients are a danger to themselves or others.
advanced directive
a sort of "living will" to specify how one wants to be treated should they be admitted to a mental facility
sadness, feelings of worthlessness, withdrawal from others, loss of sleep, apetite, sexual desire, interest and pleasure in usual activities
unfounded elation and energy, hyperactivity, talkativeness, impulsiveness.
major depressive disorder
at least two weeks of depressed mood/loss of interest and pleasure. plus some other symptoms: sleep distrubance, loss of energy, etc.
bipolar I disorder
episodes of mixed mania and depression
a change in mood less extreme than full-blown mania, lasting shorter time (4 days)
cyclothymic disorder
freequent periods of depressed mood and hypomania. can be mixed with, or seperated by, normal mood lasting as long as two months.
dysthymic disorder
chronic low depression
beck's theory of depression
individuals feel as they do because their thinking is biased toward negative interpretations. patient develops a negative schema (tendency to see the world negatively). negative views of self, world, and future.
principle cognitive biases of depression (beck's theory)
arbitrary inference
selective abstraction
magnification and minimization
helplessness/hopelessness theory
helplessness--individual's passivity and inability to act controls life.
attribution-the explanation a person has for his behavior
hopelessness--an expectation that desireable outcomes will not occur or that undesirable ones will occur and person has no ability to change sit. low self-esteem, inference that life will have negative consequences
interpersonal theory of depression
behavior of depressed people elicits negative reactions, rejection, gratifying their own self-thinking. constant seeking of reasssurance onerous to others which increases depressed mood.
biological theories of mood disorders and treatments
genetics count. and tricyclics/ssri/mao-inhibitors work.
psychodynamic therapy for depression
acheive insight into repressed conflict and ameliorate it
cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression
alter maladaptive/negative thought patterns
electroconvulsive therapy used to help severe depression or mania
therapy for depressed children/adolescents
broad spectrum including family and school environments. CBT effective.
women vs. men re: suicide
men 4-5 times more likely than women to kill themselves
3 times as many women attempt than men
suicide risks
being female
previous attempt
psychiatrists, physicians, lawyers, psychologists, police, musician, dentist
white/native american
gay/lesbian adolescents
rape survivors
physical illness
living in hungary
depressive economy
durkheim's sociological theory
3 types of suicide
egotistic suicide--few ties to family, community
altruistic--response to societal demands (protest)
anomic suicide--change in person's relation to society
shneidman's approach to suicide
there are ten commonalities of suicide.
some are:
purpose is to seek a solution
goal is cessation of consciousness
cognitive state is ambivalence
six categories of anxiety disorders
panic disorder
generalized anxiety
acute stress disorder
excessive, unreasonalbe, persistent fear triggered by objects or situations
exposure to trigger leads to intense anxiety
person recognizes fear is unrealistic
object/situation avoided with anxiety
social phobia
persistent, irrational fear linked to the presence of other people. higher suicide rates.
panic disorder
recurrent, unexpected panic attacks
at least one month of concern regarding the occurrence of further attacks
depersonalization, derealization, terror, impending doom involved with panic attacks.
fear of public places
really, a fear of having a panic attack in a public place
generalized anxiety disorder
excessive anxiety and worry
worry difficult to control
three of more of following: restlessness, easily fatigued, difficulty concentrating, irritability, muscle tension, sleep disturbance
persistent anxiety about minor items
obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
obsessions, recurrent and persistent thoughts, impulses, or urges that cuase anxiety
compulsions--repetitive behaviors and mental acts that the person performs to relieve distress
post-traumatic stress disorder
exposure to a traumatic event causing extreme fear
event is reexperienced
person avoids stimuli associated with event and has a numbing of responsiveness
hyperarousal symptoms such as exaggerated startle response
duration of symptoms over a month
the high end of adverse reactions to stress. can develop after/out of acute stress disorder
acute stress disorder
less than one month of symptoms similar to PTSD.
multicultural counseling competencies
(welful, e.r.)
1. openness toward other cultural views of the world
2. knowledge of specific culture
3. competent in involving other support people
4. modify interventions
5. develop a tolerance for ambiguity/divergent views of right/wrong
multicultural couseling competencies and standards
(sue, arredondo, mcdavis)
beliefs and attitudes
feeling good handbook 10 questions
how long have i been feeling this way?
am i doing something constructive about it or just brooding?
are my thoughts and feelings realistic?
will it be helpful/hurtful if i express my feelings?
am i making myself unhappy about a situation that's beyond my control?
am i avoiding a problem and denying i'm really upset?
are my expectations for the world realistic?
am i feeling hopeless?
am i experiencing a loss of self-esteem?
problems with the DSM
validity and reliability
diagnosis based on symptoms, not causal factors
mental health stuck with "etiology unknown"
doesn't account for cultural variation
categorical rather than dimensional
critiques of MC competencies
undue emphasis on external factors over internal processes of mental illness
assumes race/ethnicity/culture more impt. than other individual factors
emphasizes differences rather than similarities
black racial identity development
pre-encounter (black inferior)
encounter (dissonance)
immersion/emersion (idealize black, denigrate white)
integration (positive aspects of both)
white racial identity
contact (no racial identity)
multicultural assessment procedure (MAP)
identify cultural data
interpret cultural data
incorporate cultural data
arrive at sound assessment decision
intake interview information (first session)
presenting problem
psychiatric history
family psychiatric history
risk factors for depression
family members depressed
stressful/traumatic life event
lack of social support
drug/alcohol abuse
chronic medical illness/pain
diet helpers w/ depression
omega-3 fatty acids
gender identity disorder
feeling that one is of the opposite sex
aversion to same-sex clothing/activities
appears mostly in childhood (age 2-4 years) and does not always persist into adulthood. more common in boys than girls.
therapies for gender identity disorder
1. sex-reassignemtn surgery (body alterations)
2. alterations of gender identity
disorder involving sexual attraction to unusual objects or sexual activities that are unusual in nature
reliance on an inanimate object for sexual arousal
transvestic fetishism
when a man is aroused by wearing women's clothing although he still thinks of himself as a man (always male)
sexually arousing fantasies involving children
person must be at least 16 and 5 years older than victim
sexual relations between relatives to whom marriage is forbidden. often brother-sister, sometimes father-daughter (more pathological)
a marked preference for obtaining sexual gratification by watching others in a state of undress or having sexual relations
marked preference for obtaining sexual gratification by esposing one's genitals to an unwilling stranger
behaviors that involve touching or rubbing up against a nonconsenting person (such as in a crowded train)
seuxal sadism
gaining sexual gratification from inflicting pain and humiliation on another
sexual masochism
sexual gratification through subjecting oneself to pain or humiliation
psychodynamic perspective of paraphilias
defensive in nature, guarding the ego from dealing with repressed fears and memories
behavioral and cognitive perspectives of paraphilias
paraphilias arise from classical conditioning that has linked sexual arousal with inappropriate stimuli
biological perspective of paraphilias
androgen (male hormone) plays a role
therapies for paraphilias
aversion therapy
satiation (masturbation while discussing out loud the deviant activity)
orgasmic reorientation (helps patients get aroused by conventional stimuli)
criminal committment
confines a person in a mental institution for determination of competency to stand trial
civil committment
mentally ill and dangerous person who has not proken a law can be deprived of liberty and incarcerated in a mental hospital
insanity defense
defendant cannot be held responsible for an illegal act if attributed to mental illness
irresistable impulse
if a pathological impulase or drive that the personal could not control drove them to commit the act, an insanity defense is legit
m'naghten rule
the defendant is laboring under a defect of reason and does not know what he is doing is wrong
durham rule
accused is not criminally repsonsible if his unlawful act was the product of a mental disease/defect
rape survivors
more likely to use medical care, anxiety depression, PTSD, long-term sexual problems, nightmares, somatic problems
therapy for rapists/rape victims
rapists--CBT, anger management, increased empathy, group therapy, biological treatment supplements.
victims--counseling, talking, empathy, hotlines, cope with traumatic event, CBT--feel anger
psychotic disorder characterized by major distrubances in thought, emotion, and behavior
disordered thinking, fault perception and attention, flat or inappropriate affect, bizarre disturbances in motor activity
five major areas of disturbance for schizophrenic patients
thought, perception, attention
motor behavior
affect or emotion
life functioning
positive symptoms of schizophrenia
excesses and distortions, such as hallucinations and delusions--what define an acute episode of schizophrenia
negative symptoms of schizophrenia
behavior deficits like avolition, alogia, anhedonia, flat affect, asociality
apathy, or a lack of energy and seeming absence of interest to pursue routine activities
negative thought disorder, mostly lack of speech, vague, or repetitive
inability to experience pleasure in any activities, develop close relationships, etc
flat affect
no stimulus can elicit emotional response. flat expression, flat voice, no outward shows of emotion
impairment in social relationships, poor social skills, few friends. first of the symptoms to show.
disorganized symptoms
disorganized speech: problems in organizing ideas and speaking so a listener can understand
bizarre behavior: rages, bouts of agitation, unusual dressing, strange acting, collecting things, inappropriate behavior, etc.
disorganized symptoms of schizophrenia
disorganized speech (thought disorder): problems organizing ideas to make listener understand.
bizarre behavior: any sort of v. bizarre behavior
other schizophrenia symptoms (catatonia, inappropriate affect)
catatonia: motor abnormatlities--bizarre gestures, increase in activity, flailing, or unusual postures, immobility
inappropriate affect: eomtional responses out of context (laughing at bad news, etc).
early descriptions of schizophrenia
kraeplein and bleuler called it dementia praecox. believed this and manic-depressive had the same core.
categories of schizophrenia in the DSM (3)
disorganized: speech disorganized, inhcoherent, neglects appearance, etc.
catatonic: alternate b/t immobility and excitement, echo speech of others, agitation, sleeping sickness, and catatonic schizophrenia
paranoid: prominent delusions, grandiose delusions or delusional jealousy, ideas of reference.
undifferentiated schizophrenia
one that does not conform to any of the three subtypes
family and twin studies
there is much genetic disposition for schizophrenia, particularly with twins. studies with adoption show that genetic factors remain true.
biochemical factors in schizophrenia
dopamine activity--came from studies in which amphetamines produces schizophrenic results.
brain and schizophrenia
larger ventricles in the brain and more activity in the front part of the brain.
social status and schizophrenia
lower classes have higher prevalence of schizophrenia.
sociogenic hypothesis--degrading treatment by others, low education, and lack of rewards/opportunity may lead to stress in lower classes
social-selection theory--schizophrenics actually drift into the lower-class areas because of the debilitating disease
family and schizophrenia (stress-diathesis model)
schizophrenogenic mother--coined for the cold and dominant mother that produced schizophrenia in her child (not valid).
communication deviance could be a factor.
high expressed emotion can lead to more schizophrenia, as well.
biological treatments for schizophrenia
ECT and coma-inducing doses of insulin were used until proved ineffectie. prefrontal lobotomies are common contemporarily.
drug therapies for schizophrenia
antipsychotic drugs, referred to also as neuroleptics helpful. calms patients by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain. reduce positive symptoms but also don't help negative symptoms. adjunctive medications include lithium, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, tranquilizers.
psychological treatments for schizophrenia
gradual, non-threatening development of a trusting relationship; social skills training; CBT: patients taught to recognize inappropriate affect, notice signs of relapse.
7 myths about schizophrenia
1. once schizophrenic, always schizophrenic
2. every schizophrenic is the same
3. rehabilitation can only begin after stabilization
4. psychotherapy doesn't work
5. patients must be on medication forever
6. patients can only do low-level jobs
7. families are etiological agents
substance dependence
presence of many problems related to a substance: trying to quit and failing, having physical or psychological problems worsened by drug, personal problems. accompanied by physiological dependence if tolerance or withdrawal is present.
substance abuse
less serious than substance dependence. maladaptive use of substance shown by: failure to meet obligations or repeated use where dangerous or continued use despite problems
delirium tremens (DTs)
withdrawal from alcohol in one who has been drinking for many years. tremulous, hallucinations can be visual or tactile. indicates addiction.
polydrug abuse
abusing more than one drug at once.
does alcohol abuse--> alcohol dependence
only in 3.5% of people.
and 2.5% of regular populace goes on to develop dependence, anyway.
major sedatives
originally created as a cure for morphine addiction
LSD and hallucinogens
PCP (angel dust)
etiology of substance abuse/dependence
positive attitude-->experimentation-->regular use-->heavy use-->phys. dependence or abuse
a drug that causes violent vomiting if alcohol is ingested
covert sensitization
problem drinkers must imagine being violently ill by drinking
controlled drinking
the idea that an alcoholic can imbibe substances in a controlled manner without reverting to previous tendencies. a "non-catastrophizing" approach
biological treatments for heroin
either heroin substitutes or heroin antagonists
why are personality disorders on axis II rather than I?
many people with personality disorders come in with panic disorder, or something else which is comorbid with a personality disorder. putting it on a different axis encourages clinicians to check for a personality disorder, as well.
paranoid personality disorder
pervasive suspiciousness of being harmed, deceived, or exploited.
unwarranted doubts about loyalty of others.
reluctance to confide in others.
hidden meanings read in others' behavior.
grudges for wrongs.
angry reactions to perceived attacks on character.
odd/ecentric cluster of personality disorders
bear some resemblance to schizophrenia
dramatic, emotional, erratic cluster of personality disorders
anxious/fearful cluster of personality disorders
schizoid personality disorder
lack of desire/enjoyment of close relationships.
preference for solitude.
little interest in sex.
few pleasures.
lack of friends.
indifference to praise or criticism from others.
flat affect, emotional detachment.
schizotypal personality disorder
ideas of reference
peculiar beliefs/ magical thinking.
unusual perceptions.
peculiar patterns of speech.
extreme suspiciousness, paranoia.
inappropriate affect.
odd behavior/appearance
lack of close friends
discomfort/anxiety around other people.
etiology of odd/eccentric cluster
family studies show a link with paranoid and schizophrenic to schizotypal, but not schizoid.
borderline personality disorder
frantic efforts to avoid abandonment, both real and imagined.
instability and extreme intensity in interpersonal relationships, marked by splitting: idealizing people one moment and hating them next.
unstable sense of self.
impulsve behavior, i.e. reckless spending, sexual promiscuity.
recurrent suicidal and self-mutilating behavior.
extreme emotional lability.
chronic feelings of emptiness.
extreme problems controlling anger.
paranoid thinking.
etiology of borderline personality disorder
biologically runs in families; high in neuroticism, which runs in families. front lobal functioning?
object-relations theory says that inconsistent parenting or adverse childhood experiences can lead to the disorder. childhood sexual abuse/neglect or absent mothers also are a risk.
linehan's diathesis-stress says that a genetic predisposition along with an invalidating family environment
histrionic personality disorder
strong need to be center of attention.
inappropriately sexually seductive behavior.
rapidly shifting expression of emotions.
use of appearance to get attention.
speech impressionistic, passionate opinions lacking detail.
exaggerated, theatrical emotions.
overly suggestible.
misreads relationships as being more intimate than they are.
narcissistic personality disorder.
grandiose view of one's importance, arrogance.
preoccupation with one's sucess, brilliance, beauty.
extreme need for admiration.
strong sense of entitlement.
tendency to exploit others.
envy of others.
characteristics of antisocial personality disorder
repeated law breaking.
deceitfulness, lying.
irritableness and aggressiveness.
reckless disregard for own safety and that of others.
lack of remorse.
age of at least 18.
evidence of conduct disorder before age 15.
antisocial behavior not occuring exclusively during schizophrenic or manic episodes.
characteristics of psychopathy
less antisocial behavior and more psychopathic thoughts and feelings.
poverty of emotions, no sense of shame. superficially charming but manipulative.
complete lack of feelings for others.
role of family in antisocial PD and psychopathy
lack of affection and severe parental rejection primary causes. physical abuse, inconsistency, parental loss. antisocial behavior of father. inconsistent or no discipline.
psychophysiological disorders
(AKA psychosomatic disorders)
asthma, hypertension, headache, gastritis--characterized by physical symptoms that are caused or can be worsened by psychological factors
general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
hahaha. created by hans selye. 3 phases of model relating biological response to stress:
1. alarm reaction, nervous system activated by stress.
2. resistance, organism adapts to stress or is damaged.
3. exhaustion, organism suffers or dies from irreversible damage.
josh's mother's maiden name
structural social support
functional social support
structural deals with the kind of people in one's life--spouse, family members.
functional deals with the quality of relationships.
somatic-weakness theory
the connection between stress and a particular psychosomatic disorder is a weakness in the specific bodily organ.

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