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4)English CIVIL WAR


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King James I (1603-1625) replaced Elizabeth. He had 35 yrs of experience as a Scottish king. Why didn't he do well in England?
4 answers
1)James I(1603-1625) was not in touch w/the ppl
2)poor judge of character
3)he was king in a society hostile against Scots
4)he was used to a weak Scottish parliament and being obeyed w/o questions
In what ways did James I (1603-1625) demonstrate his devotion to divine right(the belief that God had made him ruler)?
2 answers
1) In his first session w/parliament he said, "I will not have my power disputed on."
2) In his essay The Trew law of Free Monarchy he wrote that a monarch has a divine right to his authority and is responsible only to God. He also wrote that rebellion was the worst political crime and that if a king ordered something evil someone should respond w/passive disobedience but be ready to accept any punishment.
why should anyone care if he asserted his power w/divine right? Most other rulers were claiming sovereignty based on divine right.
1) by saying he was supreme in power he angered parliament. In essence, he had to put himself at their level so they could grant him money. So in parliament's eyes he couldnt be supreme.
why would parliament want more power?
Parliament consisted of a new and wealthy capitalist class in England that disliked this hindrance to their power. Their wealth made them yearn for a balance between their political power and money. Also, parliament had np w/being taxed to gain more power (unlike France).
who succeeded James and why did ppl feel suspicious of them
Charles I(1629-1649) succeeded James I. They were distrusted by Puritans in parliament becuz they seemed sympathetic to Catholicism
What happened from 1629-1640
There was no way Charles I was going to share his power with parliament so he tried to rule w/o parliament.
Ok Charles I threw his country into a financial crisis. He sucked. But was there anyway he might have avoided this?
Charles could have avoided financial crisis through the revenue he collected for ships. He had extended the tax on the entire kingdom (the tax had originally been for coastal cities) and this might have been enuf to not call parliament
what did William Laud (1573-1645) do that caused the Scots to rebel?
The Scots revolted when Laud, archbishop of Canterbury, tried to impose elaborate rituals and a prayer book(modeled on the Anglican commmon book of prayer) on them. In order to subdue them he HAD to call parliament in 1640. Perhaps he should have chosen not to impose a religion on them....
what was the name of the Parliament Charles I called in 1640 and why
It was called the short Parliament since it lasted only three weeks. It was dissolved since they refused to grant funds
what was the name of the parliament(1640-1660) called after Charles I was beat up by the Scots(they invaded N. Eng. and he was forced to pay abt 850 lbs a day to them)? and what happened with it?
The Long Parliament was called by Charles I. It lasted from 1640-1660(no other parliament had lasted so long) and enacted laws that limited the ruler's power and made arbitrary govt. impossible.
Specificly, what are some things that the Long Parliament did
It abolished preogative courts such as, thecourt of Star chamber(tool of royal absolutism).It impeached Archbishop Laud. They gave Charles I a list of 204 grievances. They added two demands: 1) king must name ministers parliament trusts 2) synod of the church of England must be called to reform it.
what act did the long Parliament pass in 1641?
hint: think of the #3
Long parliament passed the triennial act in 1641. It said that parliament had to be summoned by the king every three/3 years.
English civil war(1642-1649)
this was essentially a test to see if the king or parliament was more powerful. But, the problem wasnt solved. They just had a dead charles
what was the interregnum(1649-1660)?
the interregnum was the period between 1649-1660 that separated two monarchical periods
Which political philosopher wrote___________ in 1651. It essentiallly abt how he supports the war
The Leviathan was written in 1651 by Thomas Hobbes. He wa an Eng. philosopher who said that sovereignty is derived from th eppl who transfer it to the monarchy in an implicit contract.
what was England officially after the war? and what was it truly
After the civil war England was officially a Republic (the commonwealth was declared on Jan. 30, 1649 when Charles was beheaded. In reality, they were under a military dictatorship.
what kind of power did Oliver Cromwell have? and how did he get it?
Cromwell controlled the army and was called the protectorate. The army prepared a constitution, the Instrument of Government (1653). It invested executive power in Cromwell. It also allowed for triennial parliaments and gave Parliament th esole power to raise taxes. He then divided Eng. up into 12 military districts.
After Cromwell died ppl wanted the Stuart dynasty back. who was in charge and how did ppl feel abt him?
Charles II (eldest son of Charles I)took charge. He was disliked since it was found out that he had made a secret treaty w/Louis XIV to slowly relax laws against Catholics. He would then convert to Catholicism and support the Fr. policy against the Dutch
charles II do to ease tensions between him and parliament?
He formed the Cabal of Charles. This was a council of 5 men who served both as his major advisers and as members of the parliament. There names were Clifford, Arlington, Buckingham, Ashley-Cooper and Lauderdale.
What problems were caused by Charles II making that secret religious treaty w/Louis XIV?
Everyone was scared so the Commons tried to pass a bill denying succession to a Roman Catholic (James II, Charles II's bro. But Charles II dissolved parliament and it didnt pass.
How did James II(r. 1685-1688) reinvigorate anti-Catholic fears?
1)James II violated the Test Act by appointing Catholics to positions in the armies, universities and govt.
2) 1688 he had a son and ppl feared a continuous Catholic rule.
What was the glorious revolution of 1688?
James II was replaced w/little bloodshed by Mary(James II protestant daughter) and her Dutch husband, Wiliam of Orange. It symbolized a balance between the power of the king and parliament.
1)forbade use of royal prerogative rights
2)power to suspend and dispense w/laws was declared illegal.
3)armies couldnt be raised w/o parliamentary consent
4)elections to parliament were to be free of royal interference
5)monarchs had to swear to uphold the protestant faith
6)no Catholic king
JOHN LOCKE (1632-1704) wrote Party Hard.
John LOCKE (1632-1704).
False! he wrotethe Second Treatise of Civil Government in 1690. He said that pppl set up govt. to protect life, liberty and property. The govt. that oversteps these rights gives the ppl the right to revolt
what did James VI of Scotland (he took the title of James I in England) mean by the title of his book The True Law of Monarchy (the book spells it as Trew)?
This title meant that the king was free from control by parliament, churchmen, or laws and customs of the past. It was a monarchy in which the king, as father to his ppl, looked after their welfare as he saw fit, standing above all.
why would parliament get rid of the star Chamber?
Many members of Parliament were lawyers who feared that the commmon law of England (customary or historic law) was in danger. They didnt like the idea of being punished to ensure conformity to the theology of the Church of Eng.
why would parliament limit the tonnage and poundage(custom duties) James I could collect?
They feared that if he succeeded in raising taxes on his own authority their own wealth wouuld be insecure
How was England's parliament stronger than that of Germany, Spain, France etc?
England's parliament was so organized that its resistance was effective. There was only 1 parliament for the entire country. Unlike other countries that had provincial or local estates
in what year did the scots rebel and cause Charles I to summon parliament after having dissolved it for 11 yrs?
JI,CI,C,JII,CII,Mary and william
1)James I
2)Charles I
4)Charles II
5)James II
6)Mary and william
William of Orange was already the Dutch ruler so why would he want to be distracted by being the king of England?
William of Orange spent a lot of time blocking the French's effort at becoming a "universal monarachy." It would be convenient to be have anti-French England on his side. So he accepted the invitation to invade England.
protesant dissenters were allowed to rpactice their religion but they were still excluded from political life and public service. This rule was laxly enforced.

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