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APUSH Review Part 1


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What factors caused the Powhatans to succumb to Europeans?
After being defeated in the second Anglo- Powhatan War, the Powhatans were forced from their ancestral lands and were formally separated from white areas. It had been the Powhatan’s misfortune to fall to victim to three D’s: disease, disorganization and disposability. They also lacked the unity compared to the whites. The Powhatans served no economic function for the Virginia colonists, providing no reliable labor service and no commodities to offer in commerce; therefore they could be disposed of without harm to the colonial economy, because the Europeans desperately wanted land.
For what religious purpose was the Maryland colony founded?
Maryland was founded in 1634 by Lord Baltimore, of a prominent English Catholic family. He embarked upon the venture partly to reap financial profits and partly to create a refuge for his fellow Catholics. Protestant England was still persecuting Roman Catholics. By supporting the Act of Toleration, Maryland’s new religious statue guaranteed toleration to all Christians.
List Carolina's major exports.
After mush experimentation, rice emerged as the principal export crop in South Carolina. The Carolinians paid premium prices for the West African slaves experienced in rice cultivation. North Carolina developed differently by establishing small self-sufficient tobacco farms. The Carolinas also exported large quantities of timber and naval stores (tar and pitch).
Why was South Carolina prosperous?
Carolina prospered by developing close economic ties with the flourishing sugar islands of the English West Indies. They also established a vigorous slave trade.
What differences existed between colonial life in the North and South?
In the south, slavery widened the gaps in the social structure. The defined hierarchy of wealth and status of the early eighteenth century follows: plantation owners (small group), far beneath them were farmers (largest social group), landless whites (indentured servants), and black slaves. All plantation colonies permitted some religious toleration and the tax supported Church of England became the dominate faith. Few cities developed in the colonial south and life revolved around the plantations. Churches and schools were sparse in the South and they had a self represented government (House of Burgesses). Waterways provided the means of transportation because roads were wretched. In the North, family life and education was more important. The North had more industries than the south, such as fur trading, fishing, shipbuilding and access to great ports. Their liberal government was supported by the churches.
What political impact did breaking from the Catholic Church have on England?
Henry founded the Church of England or Anglican church, being Protestant, is was under control of the English monarch instead of the pope of Rome. In the 1600’s during the reign of James I, many people wanted to change both the ceremonies and hierarchy of the Church of England because the wanted to “purify” their church of Catholic influences. They became known as Puritans. Another group known as the separatists wanted to organize a completely separate church, one that was independent of the royal control. Both groups migrated to America for religious freedom.
Know the sequence of events that occured in England from the Protestant Reformation to the Glorious Revolution.
o German friar Martin Luther nails protests against Catholic doctrines
o He ignited the religious reform (Protestant Reformation)
o John Calvin of Geneva created a theological credo-Calvinism (predestination)
o King Henry VIII breaks ties with Roman Catholic
o Church of England established
o Puritans (Congregational Church) and separatists split
o Glorious Revolution:
o Dethroned Catholic James II
o Enthroned William II and his English wife, Mary
What advantages were enjoyed by settlers of the Massachusetts Bay Colony?
Massachusetts Bay Colony enjoyed a high degree of social harmony, stemming from common beliefs (puritans). The enterprise was equipped with eleven vessels carrying a thousand immigrants to start the colony off on a later scale than any other. Many educated people came such as John Winthrop who later became the colony’s first governor. Massachusetts prospered with its resources and skills of talented settlers. It also benefited form a shared sense of purpose among most of the first settlers.
Describe the economic conditions of Pennsylvania.
Pennsylvania was founded by William Penn, on a charter granted from the king because a monetary debt was owed to his deceased father by the crown. The Quakers were shrewd businesspeople and exported grain.
New scholarship formed what kind of society in colonial America?
It formed a society unique and diverse from inception. American colonial society by 1700 was viewed as an outgrowth of many interwining roots--of different European and African heritages, of varied encounters with native peoples and a wilderness environment, and of complicated miztures of settler populations, each with itz own distinctive set of ambitions.
What group formed the biggest source of labor in the Chesapeake colonies?
Indians died too quickly on contact with the whites and African slaves were too expensive so Chesapeake planters brought some 100,000 indentured servants to the region. (“White slaves”)
What did indentured servants recieve in exchange for their labor?
In exchange for their labor they received transatlantic passage and eventual “freedom dues,” including barrels of corn, a suit of clothes and perhaps a small parcel of land.
What group recieved the greatest benefit from headright land policies?
The “headright” system encouraged the importation of servant workers and under its terms, whoever paid the passage of the laborer received the right to acquire fifty acres of land. Masters, not the servants, thus reaped the benefits of landownership.
What was family life like in the New England colonies?
Because New England wasn’t as disease-plagued as the South, settlers generally lived 10 years longer than they would in the Old World. New Englanders tended to migrate as a family rather than as separate individuals, and family was the center of New England life, which is why its population grew from natural reproductive increase. Women typically married early, and children grew up in nurturing environments in which obedience was extremely important. New England women had generally less rights than women in the South.
What justification did the English have for taking land from the natives?
The English claimed the natives “wasted” the earth by underutilizing its bounty and used this logic to justify their own expropriation of the land from the native inhabitants. The English felt it was their duty to “improve” the land by clearing woodlands for pasturage and tillage, building roads and fences, and laying out permanent settlements.
How did the economic conditions in the colonies compare to the economic conditions in England?
Compared to most 17th century Europeans, Americans lived in affluent abundance. Land was relatively cheap, though somewhat less available in the South. In the North and Middle colonies, an acre of land cost about what American carpenters could earn in one day as wages, which were roughly 3 times those of their English counterparts. Also, poverty levels, though high in America, were much higher in England.
Which profession was considered the most honorable in the colonies?
The most honored profession in America was to be a part of the clergy.
Why did the English seek to establish the Church of England in the colonies?
The English wanted to establish the Church of England in the colonies because it served as a major prop of kingly authority. However, Americans thought the Church fell short of its promises, so British officials’ attempts to impose it on the colonies were unsuccessful.
What prompted French colonial interests in the New World?
In the 1500s, France was engulfed in foreign and domestic wars, including clashes between Roman Catholics and Protestant Huguenots. After the Edict of Nantes was issued in 1598, which granted limited tolerance to French Protestants, France began to become the most feared nation in Europe. When King Louis XIV was enthroned, he took a deep interest in overseas colonies. The French mainly hunted beaver to make a profit off of the pelts.
How did American colonists respond to the Proclamation of 1763?
Americans were extremely angered with the Proclamation of 1763. They believed the land beyond the Appalachians was their birthright, something they had also purchased with their blood in the recent French and Indian War. They defied the proclamation, and clogged the westward trails.
Which was the first tax raising law passed by England in the colonies?
The Sugar Act of 1764 was the first law ever passed by Parliament for raising tax revenue in the colonies for the crown.
In what ways were the Navigation Laws a burden on the colonists?
The Navigation Laws inflicted a currency shortage on the colonies, because more was imported than exported. Mercantilism stifled economic initiative and imposed a dependency on British agents and creditors.
Name some actions taken by the colonists that helped them unite.
Some actions that helped the colonies unite: non-importation agreements, Stamp Act Congress of 1765, Sons/Daughters of Liberty, Boston Tea Party, helping each other after the Intolerable Acts were passed, Committees of Correspondence, the Continental Congress, and the Association.
Know the chronologival order of the following events: Sugar Act,Declaratory Act,Stanp Act, repeal of the Stamp Act.
Chronological order: Sugar Act, Stamp Act, repeal of the Stamp Act, Declaratory Act
Know the contributions of the following leaders: Howe, Burgoyne,Cornwallis,Greene.
Contribution of leaders:

• William Howe- English general; not a military genius; commanded at Bunker Hill; could have crushed Washington’s forces when they retreated past the Delaware River, but didn’t; also didn’t help Burgoyne when needed and instead helped the main British army for an attack on Philadelphia

• Burgoyne- English general; was supposed to go down to Lake Champlain from Canada to capture the Hudson River valley; Howe’s troops in New York could advance up the Hudson River to meet Burgoyne near Albany if needed; surrendered at Saratoga on October 17, 1777 to American general Horatio Gates.

• Cornwallis- assaulted at Yorktown; surrendered his entire force of 7000 men on October 19, 1781 after being cornered by Washington from land and Admiral de Grasse (French) by sea (he blockaded them after beating off the British fleet)

• Greene- the “Fighting Quaker”; lost battles but won campaigns by exhausting General Charles Cornwallis; succeeded in clearing most of Georgia and South Carolina of British troops; distinguished himself by his strategy of delay- standing and then retreating

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