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Chem 209 Flashcards


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Definition: A cleaning molecule made by reacting fat with lye.
Fat + NaOH -> soap + ?
The hydrocarbon "tail" of a soap molecule is usually polar or nonpolar?
If R < C12, what kind of soap?
Gas soap
The hydrocarbon "head" of a soap molecule is usually polar or nonpolar?
If R is C12 or C13, what kind of soap?
If R is C16 or C17, what kind of soap?
If R is > C17, what kind of soap?
Not soluble in water
Some individuals are unable to metabolize phenylalanine. This condition is known as?
PKU or phenylketonuria
Definition: Used to resist a change of pH in food.
In reference to a Bag of Fertilizer, what element does each number represent: 1-2-3?
1-Nitrogen, 2-Phosphorus, 3-Potassium
In reference to a Bag of Fertilizer, any combination of numbers can be used, as long as?
As long as the sum of the numbers is less than 100
A lack of Vitamin C causes what disease?
What did sailors eat to prevent scurvy?
Definition: Artificial product produced by man.
Animal fats and vegetable oil are converted to soaps by reaction with?
Sodium Hydroxide
The polar "head" hydrogen bonds to 1-? while the nonpolar "tail" dissolves in 2-?
1-Water, 2-Dirt/Grease/Grime
Definition: Indirect dissolving of 2 incompatible substances.
In cleaning, soap acts as an ? between "dirt" and water.
In hard water, soaps are converted to?
Insoluble salts
Soap will combine with acid to make what?
Fatty acid or grease
3 typical ions responsible for hard water
Ca +2, Mg +2, Fe +3
Bathtub ring is caused by precipitation of soap by ? ? ions.
Hard metal
What are the trace amounts of INORGANIC substances needed by the body?
3 energy sources for plants
Carbon dioxide, water, sunlight
Define: broad spectrum
Covers many different varieties.
What 4 vitamins are fat soluble? What 2 are water soluble?
1-A,D,E,K ; 2-B,C
Each ? species lacks at least one essential amino acid.
What does low Iodine cause?
Goiter (thyroid gland)
What does low Iron cause?
Anemia (oxygen in blood)
3 functions that Vitamin E has served
1-Underarm deoderant, 2-Healing for burn victims, 3-Increase sexual potency and virility (sperm count)
? contains ALL the essential amino acids to support life as does ?, ?, and ?
Meat, Milk Eggs & Cheese
What is naturally found in Swiss cheese but functions as a preservative when added to bread?
Calcium proprionate
? for the ? flower is nontoxic to birds and animals and rapidly breaks down in the environment.
Pyrethrins, Pyrethrum
Insects destroy what percentage of everything grown or stored?
What did Rachel Carson's book, "Silent Spring" suggest?
DDT was having a disastrous effect on our environment.
This compound prevents botulism.
Sodium nitrite
How is "Agent Orange" made? How was it used?
1-Made by mixing 24D & 245T together. 2-Used in Vietnam to defoliate the jungle from hidden enemies.
What pesticide residue is found in apples? In salmon?
1-Alar, 2-DDT
What are 3 purposes of fat?
Storage, energy, insulation
Most famous carbamate? What's it responsible for? What gas was leaked?
1-Sevin, 2-World's worst chemical accident in Bhopal India, 3-Methyl isocyanate gas
5 Mandatory & Voluntary components of nutrition info & the order in which they must appear...
1-Total calories, 2-Calories from fat, 3-Calories from saturated fat, 4-Total fat, 5-Saturated fat
What is the purpose of a sequestrant?
Used to tie up metal ions in food.
Definition: Nonselective herbicide that takes 5-10 days for its effect to be observed. No residual residue left behind.
Round Up
What is a positive characteristic of DDT? Negative?
Pos-When used on crops, it had a long lasting effect ; Neg-Many insects were able to detoxify and became harder to kill
Order of Energy Sources the body uses
1-Carbs, 2-Fats, 3-Proteins
? occurs naturally and is mined commercially in South America.
NaNO3 or salt peter
Ammonium nitrate is also used as a(n) ?
Definition: Brief scalding before freezing to prevent nutrient breakdown
What pest was sterilization used on?
Screw worm fly, cattle pest
What disease is caused by a lack of Vitamin A?
Night blindness
What is an ingredient?
Natural product produced by plants or animals.
Definition: For broad leaf weeds, the common substance used on lawns & agricultural crops.
What sweetener was extensively used until it was banned in 1969?
Calcium cyclamate
Most famous & notorious of the chlorinated HC's pesticides
When did home canning become important?
In 1858 when John Mason invented the mason jar
Rotenone is derived from what tropical plant?
Definition: Chemicals used to keep oils in suspension in a water solution
Definition: Added to food to prevent fats and oils from reacting with oxygen which results in a rancid odor
Anti-oxidant additives
NH3 that can be compressed and stored in liquid form is called what?
Anhydrous ammonia
What is a poison antidote also used in soda pop?
DDT is an excellent insecticide to destroy mosquitoes that cause ? or body lice that cause ?
1-Malaria, 2-Typhus
What sweetener was found to cause bladder cancer in 1977 but has remained on the market?
What are the 3 macronutrients besides C, H, O?
Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium
What are phermones?
Insect sex attractants
Cultures with a high fiber diet seem to have fewer cases of what disease?
Colon cancer
Along with carbohydrates, fats, and proteins in our diet, we need trace amounts of what ORGANIC substances?
What does the body use for growth/repair of cells and as a last resort, a source of energy?
3 characteristics of "potash" (Hint: Originally named, obtained by, found in?)
1-Originally designated potassium carbonate, 2-Obtained by leaching wood ashes, 3-Found in fertilizer formulas
Definition: Herbicide used to kill grass-like weeds that's used on corn and takes 1-2 years to disintegrate
What 2 spoilage inhibitors, when fed to rats, gave them a longer life?
BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) & BHA (butylated hydroxyanisole)
What is 245T?
A relative of 24D and is more effective on woody types of plants
Define: fresh (in reference to food)
Raw or unprocessed food
Definition: Natural organic compounds that come from plant sources and can be considered to be "natural" insecticides.
Some of the most potent carcinogens (cancer causing chemicals)
Definition: DDT is fat soluble, therefore it could be concentrated in the food chain by higher forms of life
Nitrates (NO3 -1) are another form of ? ?
Plant fertilizers
Definition: Nitrogen fixing bacteria attached to the roots of some plants. Enables gaseous N2 to be converted into a water soluble form.
Name this spoilage inhibitor: A disinfectant, preservative, bleach used in dried fruits, wine, and corn syrup.
Sulfur dioxide
Definition: Additives used to keep a substance dry
These insecticides seem to be MORE toxic but LESS persistent in the environment.
Organic Phosphate Insecticides
What disease is caused by a lack of Vitamin B?
Beri-Beri (inflammation of nerves)
1-Naturally occuring INORGANIC chemicals ; 2-Compounds of arsenic, lead, mercury, zinc, copper ; 3-Typically toxic to ALL forms of life
3 Characteristics of pre-1939 Chemical Control
This drug was used extensively in the Civil War for pain but is highly addictive.
Definition: Dependence of the body tissues on the continued presence of a drug; revealed by disturbing or life threatening withdrawal symptoms.
Physical dependence
Definition: These drugs are called minor tranquilizers; they possess the properties of barbiturates without impairing mental alertness.
Anti-Anxiety drugs
Name 2 notable benzodiazepine prescription drugs
Diazepam & Valium
3 Components of Addiction
1-Psychological influence, 2-Physical dependence, 3-Tolerance
Can Chemistry develop a drug similar to morphine without its addictive properties?
Meperidine (Demerol)
Definition: Body or tissue resistance such that larger doses are required to obtain the same effect.
An antipyretic is a ? ?
Fever reducer
Definition: A class of drugs that functions as "pain killers".
Small daily doses of aspirin lowers the risk of ?
Prolonged use of aspirin may lead to ? ?
Gastrointestinal problems
What are the substances called that are added to surfectants to increase their detergency?
Definition: Synthetic detergents which function like soap.
Definition: These types of cleaning molecules are neutral, low foaming and used in products that require little rinsing.
Definition: These types of cleaning molecules have a positive charge and often have antimicrobial properties.
Definition: These types of cleaning molecules have a negative charge and are good removers of dirt, dust, etc.
Soap forms "scum" in what kind of water?
Persons who are sensitive to the acidity of aspirin or who are allergic to aspirin will probably have similar problems with?
What is a side effect of antihistamines?
What were the 1st antibacterial drugs?
Sulfa drugs
Definition: Class of additives that "hold" water in food, prevents it from drying out.
What does MSG stand for? It occurs naturally in?
1-Monosodium Glutamate, 2-Proteins
3 Natural Sources of Phosphates
1-Bones, 2-Fish, 3-Guano (bird droppings)
Which compound was originally proposed as a "cure" for morphine addiction?
Female birth control drugs attempt to mimic the structure and properties of?
Definition: Additive used in chewing gum; also has sweet taste.
Hormones are produced by which system in the body?
How many amino acids in proteins can the body make? How many does it need?
12, 20
What 2 colors have been banned after many years of use?
Violet #1, Red #2
What is the formal name for the yellow color in carrots?
What is Paraquat?
Preemergent herbicide used to kill marijuana.
What is the scientific name for Vitamin B1? Vitamin B2?
B1-Thiamine, B2-Riboflavin
What are 3 meat preservation techniques?
Smoking, Salting, Drying
Proteins produce ? kcal/gram.
What is a negative characteristic of ABS?
It was not broken down in the environment and caused pollution.
How are floating soaps made?
They're blown with air during processing.
Detergents and abrasives are the major active ingredients in?
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is what type of infection?
What does mixing bleach with acid produce?
Toxic chlorine gas
What is the active ingredient in chlorine laundry bleaches?
Sodium hypochlorite
Definition: Molecules that are polymers of amino acids containing C, H, O, N.
How did DDT affect birds? More specifically, eagles?
1-Birds laid thin shelled eggs. Eggs couldn't support weight of parents and were "scrambled." 2-Eagles came close to extinction.
What is BT and what is it used on?
BT= Bacillus Thuringiensis, Used on lawns/gardens
Salt increases ? but it masks ? and ?
1-Sweetness, 2-Bitterness & Sourness
Slow vs "quick green" refers to the ? of the product.
What forms a strongly caustic solution when mixed with water?
Automatic detergent
Brighteners convert ? light into ? light.
1-Ultraviolet (UV), 2-Visible
Water softener uses an exchange resin to substitute ? for Ca+2 & Mg+2 ions.
Name 2 chemicals used to "soften" water.
Washing soda & Trisodium Phosphate
The 1st synthetic cleaners had what type of structure?
Alkene Benzene Sulfonate (ABS)
Aspirin was isolated in 1860 from what?
Willow bark
Acetyloxy (Benzoic) Acid is generally known as what?
The fact that acetominophen is prescribed more frequently in hospitals than aspirin is probably because the acetominophen is NOT what?
Name 2 drugs responsible for up and down mood swing effects
Adrenaline/epinephrine & Serotonin
Definition: Craving for the repeated use of a drug because its effects are enjoyable.
Psychological dependence
What chemical has been banned from laundry products because of its fertilizer property resulting in water pollution?
Anti-inflammatory is used to reduce what?
Aspirin tablets must contain how many mg's of aspirin?
Definition: Chemicals that send pain messages to the brain.
Kids + chickenpox + aspirin = ?
Reye syndrome
Definition: The study of the actions and disposition of drugs in the human body.
Drug used by the Greeks in 300 BC
Drug long used by Indians of the Andes Mts in South America
What are the 3 ways to name a drug?
1-Chemical name, 2-Generic name, 3-Brandname/Trademark
Definition: Chemical used for treatment or prevention of disease.
A patent gives a company the legal right to make and sell a product for how many years?
What does a tablet contain to allow it to be compressed?
What is the chemical name for Aleve?
What is the purpose of an expectorant?
To bring up mucus from the bronchial passages.
Definition: Substances produced by microorganisms that kill or inhibit other microorganisms.
Name 2 nondrowsy prescription antihistamines
Seldane (terfenadine) & Hismanal (astimizole)
What is the "miracle drug" that has been extremely effective in destroying many forms of bacteria that are deadly killers?
What type of gas used in WWI seems effective on some types of skin cancers?
Mustard gas
What chemicals are effective on some types of reproductive cancers?
Sex hormones
What type of radiation destroys ALL cells it strikes?
Definition: Functions in the body as chemical messengers.
What body gland produces thyroxine (cell metabolism)?
What body gland produces insulin (regulates sugar)?
What body gland produces estradiol (female sex characteristics)?
What body gland produces testosterone?
What body gland produces cortisone (muscle lubricant)?
Adrenal gland
What chemical can lower blood pressure, induce labor, relieve nasal congestion, & relieve ashtma?
What acid are prostaglandins produced from?
Arachidonic acid
Definition: Muscle lubricant that reduces inflammation when injected or applied topically.
A look-a-like cortisone often prescribed for topical treatment of skin disorders like dermatitis or psoriasis.
What are side effects (5) of "The Pill"?
Water retention, blood clots, heart attacks/strokes, gallbladder disease, liver tumors.
What was the original purpose of DES?
To maintain pregnancy in women having a history of miscarriages.
What was the problem with DES found in the 1960's?
Rare forms of vaginal cancer
It has been used in cattle feed as a growth promoter.
Causes the lining of the uterus to shed when taken with an injection of a prostaglandin.
What tablet is used for abortions?
What anasthetic was inhaled to leave a person conscious for their operation?
C3H6, cyclopropane
In 1860, the anesthetic property of ? was used.
What 2 substances are used today instead of novacaine?
Lidocaine or mepivicaine
This intravenous anesthetic induces hallucinations similar to those reported by people near death.
"Angel dust" as it is called on the street; also used as an animal tranquilizer
Phencyclidine (PCP)
This class of depressant are depressants made from barbituric acid.
Used to calm anxiety and other psychic disorders before being replaced by modern tranquilizers.
Alcohol + "Barb" = ?
3 typical barbiturate substances
Phenobarbital, thiopental, pentobarbital
This drug contains alkaloids and its main component is about 10% morphine.
What are triglycerides?
Esters of glycerol & fatty acids.
2 Common Disaccharides
Sucrose & Lactose
Name the fatty acid:

Butyric acid (butter)
Definition: Compounds that are hydrates of carbon with the general formula CH2O. Includes sugars, starches, & cellulose.
Definition: Simple sugars with the formula C6 H12 O6.
Health wise, the ? unsaturation, the better for our bodies.
It is recommended that no more than what percentage of our body's energy source comes from fats?
If a polysaccharide is made with ALPHA linkages, then the resulting molecule is?
2 Simple Carbohydrates
Sucroses & Glucoses
Definition: Method to determine the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acids in the molecule.
Iodine Numbers
Name the fatty acid:

CH3(CH2)7 CH = CH(CH2)7 COOH
Oleic acid (olive oil)
If a polysaccharide is made with BETA linkages, the resulting molecule is?
Cellulose (fiber)
Definition: A mixture of chemicals that our body is able to extract energy from.
It is recommended that what percentage of our body's energy source comes from carbohydrates?
2 Complex Carbohydrates
Starches & Cellulose (not digestible)
Fats yield ? kcal/gram.
How is energy measured?
Definition: Substances made from C, H, O but contain an ester functional group.
What is lactose intolerance?
Inability to break down lactose into simpler sugars.
Carbohydrates yield ? calories/gram.
? has a steroid structure and is synthesized (made) by our body.
Name the fatty acid:

CH3 (CH2)16 COOH
Steric acid (beef tallow)
Name the fatty acid:

Capric acid (coconut oil)
Disaccharide found in milk
Name the fatty acid:

CH3 (CH2)14 COOH
Palmitic acid (palm oil)
Unsaturation means ? hydrogen, or ? carbon-carbon double bonds.
1-Less, 2-More
Typically LOW iodine numbers are associated with ? ?, with the exception of vegetable, coconut, & palm oils.
Animal fats (saturated fats)

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