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what is a cell membrane
is a living bounday that seperates the living contents of the cell from the non-living surrounding enviroment
cell wall
suppourt and protection
gives raise to basal bodies and the direct formation of cilia and flagella
use solar energy to synthesize carbohydrates and are surrounded by two membranes
function in pacging DNA during nuclear divison and contol of gene expression
short like structures involvedin all movment and moving materials past cells
the network of filamentous protein structures within the cell that help it maintain shape and anchor organelles or help the organelle move as necessary
longer involved in cell movement (sperm cells, evglena) (9+2 arrangment of microtubles)
gogli body
organelle consisting of flattened saccules and also vesicles that process packages and distrubutes molecules about or from the cells
membrane bounded vesicle that contains hydrolytic enzymes for digesting macromolecules
cellular ropes made of repeating units. infastructure protiens and allows certain cells to move in am amoeboid fashion
hallow tubes fir transport act as tracks along which organelles move
this oorganelle has a double membrane and converts glucose and o2 to produce atp
what is the nucleolus?
site of rrna productionin the nucleus
what is the nucleus?
the brain of the cell it deter,ines the metabolism,growh, differenation, structure and reproduction.
what is the ribosome
made of rrna and protien, these small, numerous organelles are the site of protein synthesis in cytoplasm
what is the rough er
apperance is due to ribosomes, recievd synthesied protein and may modify it
smooth er
lipid synthesis
what are vaculoes
membrane bound spheres that store water and dissolve materials.
small membrane spheres used for transportation
what component causes the cell membrane to have a fluid consistecny?
what component causes it to be a mosaic?
what is mitochondrias cristae used for?
enzymes live here that are involved in cellular resperation
what is the nucleus enclosed by?
nuclear envelope
what does the nuclear envelope contain?
pores that open to the cytoplasm
what three organelles are enclosed by a double membrane?
nucleus mitochondria chloroplast
what is the relationship between nucleoli and ribosomes/
rna made by nucleoli become a structual part off ribosomes
what does Dna control within the nucleus
protein synthesis
equation Carbohydrate+oxygen----) carbon dioxide + water
water + carbon dioxide ---) oxygen + carbohydrate
how do lysosomes and vesicles work togther?
macromolecules brougth into the cell by pinocytosis at plasma m.b lysomes fuse = simpler subunits into cytoplasm
how does the er and goli apparatus work together?
products produced at e.r are sent to golgi for repackaging, secretion and digestion
how do centrioles and cilia work together?
centrioles become basal bodies that produce cilia
how do ribosomes and endopasmic reticulum work together?
proteins made at ribosome are located on er
what do chloropast and mitochondria do?
carbs made in chloropast broken down in mitochondria
golgi body and vesicles
golgi body contains enzymes that madify/sort/label + package proteins into vesicles that pinch off outer surface
nucleolous and ribosomes
nucleolous makes rrna that joins w/protien subunit to make protiens
how are mitchochondria like chloroplasts ?
both concerened with energy
which molecule forms a bilayer within the membrane
which organelle doesnt contain membrane
which doesnt contain nucliec acids?
what is connnected to the nuclear envelope
what is the fluid mosaic model?
double layer of phospholipids that contains proteins embeded in its bilyar. Carbohydrates are attached to the proteins.
what is the fluid mosaics function?
its an indentification marker for cell recognition
why is the cell membrane selectively permeable?
allows only some molecules o enter the cell that are not the same
diffusion is?
a physical process that requires no energy. It allows partices to move from area of greater concentration to lower concentration
how to increase rate of diffusion
1)temp 2)concentration gradient 3)decrease molecule size
what is facilitated transport?
is the passage of molecules or ions from (high) to (low) concentration through specific protein carriers no atp is required
is the net movement of water molecules from more water to area of less water acros selectively permeable membrane
osmotic pressure
is the pressure due to the flow of water from greater to lower water. The greater the difference the greater the osmotic pressure
Active transport
requires atp to allow molecules to move of (low) to (high) concentration
some factors that affect the rate of diffusion are?
1) size 2)shape 3)concentration 4)temp 5)charge 6)lipid soluable
process were substances move into cell from enviroment
process where cell engulfs and ingests particles
process where vesicle formation brings macromolecules into cell
an intercelluar vesicle fuses with plasma memembrane so that the vesicle contents are released outside
when there is more water inside the cell than the outside the cell it shrinks because it has lost wqter due to osmosis
when there is an equal balance between outside and inside nothing changes
when there is les water in the cell and more out of the cell it gains water and it will sell up nd may burst
what components is the animal cell missing ?
cell wall and chloroplast
what components is the plant cell missing?
lysosomes and centrioles
what do prokyctics have?
cell membrane, cell wall andribosomes
how does he cell wall and cell membrane work?
cell wall protects the plant and the cell membrane invites things in
why do large molecules and small molecules have problems entering the cell wall?
cellulose fibers
dark staining structure that are the site of rrna synthesis
location of er
begin outside of nucleus and branch throughout the cytoplasm
what are lipids used for?
growth of cell membrane detoxify drugs chemicals
what does er provide>
increase surface area
what do the er channels provide
storage space transportation routes membrane factory
what is synthesizedin the smooth er
phospholipids and cholestrol
what matures proteins
golgi apparatus
what is the path of rrna?
produced in nucleolus and joined with proteins than migrate to nuclear pore to cytoplasm
where is golgi apparatus located?
nucleus and er
what do the golgi apparatus sacs contain ?
where are proteins sorted,labeled amd packaged?
golgi body
how are vesicles and vacuoles formed?
pinching off golgi body endicytosis of cell membrane extension of er membrane
what is vacuole used for?
cellular digestion autodigestion break donw of whole cell
what 4 enzymes do lysosomes contain
proteins rna dna carbohydrates
what do peroxisomes do?
remove hydrgen atoms from small molecule and join hydrogen atoms to oxygen
what ekse di mitochondria do besides produce energy?
water calcium other charged particles
how do mitochondria produce
splitting in half
what is chlorophyl
chemical that absorbs energy of the sun to provide the energy required for reducing co2 to glucose
what is proikaryotic
includes bacteria and blue green alge
what is the concentration gradient?
gradual change in chemical concentration form one point to another
what is a solute
substance that is dissolved in a solvent = a solution
what is a solvent
fluid that dissolves solutes
contraction of the cell contents due to water loss
what is turgor pressure
pressure of the cell contents against the wall when the vacuole is full

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