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How did Louis XIV strengthen his control over France?
--domestication of nobility. --He conciliated the upper bourgeoisie by making them royal administrators who would be unconnected with local elites—the intendants --religious unity, overturned edict of nantes.
What did Frederick \"The Great Elector\" of Prussia do?
Brought science and culture to Prussia
Aim of English colonialsim?
kill all indigineous people.
What did the english act of succession do?
said all monarchs must be in anglican church.
What did the Treat of Paris do?
ended seven years war (second of prussian/austrian wars) and ended american rev.
What were the theological premises of Lutheranism?
1. Justification by Faith alone 2. Bible over Church tradition 3. Priesthood of all believers
Why did Switzerland emerge as such an important center for sixteenth-century Protestantism?
--No kings or princes, no one to stop small towns. --Anabaptists, Geneva, Zwinglism
How did the notions of family and marriage change during the Reformation?
--patriarchal family central institution --Women expected to be housewife, not nun. Marriage no longer sacrament. --Increased parental control over marriage.
# # What caused the decline of Spain in the seventeenth century?
1. lacked agricultural and mineral resources. 2. Preoccupied with revolts in Italy and fighting Counter Reformation wars. 3. Wary of trade as a profession. 4. Lived in splendor, dedicated to military rather than trade and savings.
How did the patterns of European colonial settlement in the Americas differ from one another?
English: colonies joint-stock and tried to duplicate english life, expulsion and destruction of native populations to totally control area, agricultural. French: Military and Fur trade outposts, direct crown enterprise Dutch: Fort and Factory Spanish: Intermarriage permitted, Catholic conversion the rule. Didn\'t try to replace native culture, all about mining.
How did 18th century colonialism differ from 17th?
Came to be dominated by French and particularly British. Austrian Succession, 7 years war, american rev all affected.
What was the most important contribution of the Renaissance to the Scientific Rev?
What did the nomonalists think?
That the laws of nature revealed nothing about god.
What did it mean to be a mechanist in the seventeenth century?
believed world operated like a machine: copernicus to newton. science of nature without passion.
What were the causes of the French Revolution?
1. Louis weak monarch. Indescisive on assignants, finances, etc. 2. Debt- from Louis xiv\'s opulence and wars. 3. class conflict between upper bourgeois and nobility. Nobles of sword and robe. Peasantry had lots of taxes. 2.
Why did the French Revolution become more radical?
1. Common people become politicized. 2. Louis remained weak, tried to escape. 3. France went to war against Aust and Prus, France had to be loyal to new rev govt.
What principles guided the Congress of Vienna?
1. preventing future french expansion--louis 18 2. no new revs 3. stability, legit kings.
What different forms did nationalism take and why?
1. pre conference of vienna, mostly in central and eastern europe. 2. austria, hungary, germany, prussia all collections of small states. 3.
# # Why did the effort to unify Italy and Germany succeed in the 1860s?
Italian blended Garibaldi\'s (popular movement) and Cavour\'s (diplomatic, immediate) styles. Ongoing process. Germany--Bismark, foreign and domestic changes for strong Prussia, less german nationalism.
How did the second industrial rev change everyday life?
1. Infant mortality declined. 2. luxury goods up, products became faster and cheaper to make. Consumption up. 3. Corporations became horizontal in cartels.
What were the causes of World War I?
1. The Austrians viewed the assassination as a pretense for conflict against its Balkan neighbors and declared war on July 28. This act drew in all the great powers and made war inevitable. Diplomats failed to stem the tide of war since their military leaders were locked into strategic thinking. 2. he great powers challenged one another for economic, military, and imperial advantage at the same time that their scramble for empire led to an arms race at home. The Second Industrial Revolution fed the desire for new technology.
Why did the Schlieffen Plan fail?
1. Main = decided to invade russia too, overextending itself. 2. Changed plan a lot. 3. Belgian army had good resistance.
Why did the Allies persist with an offensive strategy?
he “cult of the offensive” insisted that breakthroughs were necessary and possible only with enough troops and enough weapons. Planners continued to believe that men and weapons could be mobilized, but with the war now a trench war of attrition, massive offensives were sadly destined for failure; hence the massive number of casualties on both sides. There was also the real hope that the war would be glorious, conclusive, and over by Christmas 1914.
How did the Bolsheviks seize power?
The abdication of Nicholas II in March 1917 left a void in the affairs of the Russian government. Provisional govt weak. war continued to go badly for the Russians and in many respects something had to give way. When bolsheviks took over, provisional govt fled.
how did allies win?
German exhaustion and lack of sufficient troops and materials. U.S. entered the war as strong when Russia left.
What happened with Napoleon\'s concordat with the pope?
Pope acknowledged legitamacy of republic. Could name bishops but Nap could reject. French majority religion but not official.
What reforms did the National Convention make?
They gave more rights to women with divorce, Price maximums, decree of fraternity to help other countries with revolutions, reorganized army.
How was Frederick the Great and enlightened despot?
Interested in music and art, corresponded with Voltaire, freed serfs on his own estate, limited religious toleration in order to reduce power of catholic church, improved education, eliminated torture.
How were Maria and Joseph enlightened despots?
Joseph abolished serfdom and taxed nobles, but that was reversed after his death. Limited religious toleration.
How did Peter westernize Russia?
New tax system, table of ranks, rise through merit. Imported Western war advisors. Fought Sweden for warm water port, St. Petersburg, made nobles and segs live there. Took control of Orthodox church.

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