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Human Biology Exam 2


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DNA ---> mRNA ---> Proteins Need to CUT and SPLICE DNA strands.
Restriction Enzyme
Cuts DNA at a specific target sequence. - DNA can be inserted into a different DNA strand - new organism now has this gene ---> can make protein. - Bacteria will take up DNA in circular form (plasmid). - Use this to produce large amounts of human proteins (insulin).
Transgenic Animal
Transfer of genes from one organism to another; harvest proteins in milk, or blood.
Gene Therapy
Replace defective gene with a healthy gene. - Delivery by VIRUSES. - Virus works as a DNA injection system. - Healthy gene inserted into host's DNA.
Axial Skeleton
Central; Skull, vertebral column, rib cage.
Appendicular Skeleton
Arms & legs; clavicle, scapula, humerus, radius & ulna, carpals, metacarpals & phalanges, pelvic girdle, femur, tibia & fibula, tarsals, metatarsals.
Collar Bone
Collar Bone
Shoulder Bone
Shoulder Bone
Upper Arm
Upper Arm
Radius & Ulna
Radius & Ulna
Metacarpals & Phalanges
Metacarpals & Phalanges
Pelvic Girdle
Hip Bone
Hip Bone
Pelvic Girdle
Tibia & Fibula
Lower Leg
Lower Leg
Tibia & Fibula
Metatarsals & Phalanges
Metatarsals & Phalanges
Internal Anatomy of Bone:
Living tissue, spongy bone, compact bone, bone composed of calcium & collagen.
Living Tissue
Bone cells; osteocytes
Spongy Bone
Full of holes; rich blood supply
Compact Bone
More rigid, tightly packed
Calcium Hardens
- Ossifies cartilage models. - Continues until the end of puberty (growth plates at the ends of bones harden off/ossify; triggered by testosterone, estrogen).
2 Types of Bone Cells
-Osteoblasts -Osteoclasts
Bone building cells; remove calcium from blood.
Bone restoring cells; break down bone and release calcium into blood.
Calcium Storage
Balance between body calcium needs and calcium storage.
Stimulates osteoblasts; released with high calcium in the blood; causes calcium storage in bones
Parathyroid Hormone
Stimulates osteoclasts; released with low calcium in the blood; cause calcium release from bones.
Bone Break
Healed as a series of steps: 1. Blood clot 2. Break area invaded by fibroblasts, produce collagen 3. Cartilage callus 4. Cartilage ossifies, replaced with bone 5. Bump in bone after healing eventually remodels
- Made by chondrocytes - Poor blood & nerve supply - 3 types: elastic (flexible), hyaline (frictional), fibrocartilage (in invertebral disks)
- Fibrous - structures of skull. - Cartilaginous - Immovable - Invertebral disks - Synovial - Movable (hinge - knee; ball and socket - hip)
Ligaments and Tendons
- Ligaments - connects bone to bone - Tendons - connects muscle to bone
Synovial Joints
- Injuries = Sprains - Stretch, partial, or complete tear of ligament. - Direction of impact determines which ligaments are damaged. - Cartilage and synovial fluid helps keep lubricated - Bursa - fluid-filled, cushion
Joint Inflammation
- Decreased bone density - Treated by increasing calcium intake and light exercise
Wearing of cartilage
Rheumatoid Arthritis
- Autoimmune - Immune system causes inflammation of joints - Cartilage breaks down
Muscular System
- Force generation - Heat generation - Protection
Types of Muscle
Skeletal, cardiac, smooth
Skeletal Muscle
Striated (striped), voluntary, activated by nervous system.
Cardiac Muscle
Striated (striped), involuntary, heart muscle.
Smooth Muscle
Unstriated, involuntary, of ten TUBES, vessels, digestive tract.
Locate these muscles:
- Biceps, triceps - Quadriceps, hamstring - Latissimus, dorsi - Rectus abdominus - Pectoralis major - Deltoid - Gastrocnemius - External oblique
Not moving, stable attachment point of muscle.
Attachment point of muscle that moves the joint.
Antagnostic Muscle Pair
Moves a joint in opposite directions.
Whole muscle composed of:
Multiple fascicles (multiple strips). - Muscle fibers/cells - Myofibrils. - Sarcomeres
Muscular System Prefixes
Myo- Sarco-
Muscles get their energy from:
Process of Muscle Movement:
1. Myosin head binds (ADP + P) 2. Myosin head tilts (release ADP + P) 3. Myosin releases (ATP binds) 4. Myosin head resets (ATP --> ADP + P)
Blocks myosin binding sites on actin filament.
Holds tropomyosin in blocking position, binding site for calcium.
If Ca++ Available (Actin Filament):
Binds troponin, shift tropomyosin - uncovers myosin binding sites on actin filament.
Ca++ Initiates (Actin Filament):
Contraction - unblocks myosin binding sites.
Neuromuscular Junction
Connection between nervous system (neuron) and a muscle fiber. - Neuron releases neurotransmitter molecule (Acetylcholine) into synoptic cleft. - Acetylcholine binds muscle cell and triggers electrical impulse in muscle. - Electrical impulse moves down muscle fiber and dives inward at transverse tubules. - Electrical impulse causes sarcoplasmic reticulum to release calcium (Ca++).
Motor Unit
Motor neuron and all the muscle fibers to which it connects. - Allows us to control strength of a muscle contraction. - Subdivide single muscle into multiple motor units. - Brain chooses from a set of motor units. - Coordination.
Muscle Contraction Strength
Force = # of myosin heads bound to actin. Number of heads bound determined by: # of active muscle fibers (motor unit recruitment); available binding sites on actin (calcium release).
Electrical Firing
Signal impulse causes a "twitch"; multiple impulses cause "summation"; rapid impulse cause "tetanic contraction".
Increase in muscle contraction strength.
Tetanic Contraction
Increases Ca++ concentration to maximal; all myosin heads can bind to actin.
Stimulation Frequency
Also determines muscle contraction strength
Muscle Stimulation
An electronic instrument that delivers very low amplitude electrical impulses to a muscle; muscles will respond to this electrical impulse by contracting.
Energy Sources for Muscle Movement
- Available ATP - Creatine phosphate pathway - Glycogen metabolism - glucose production - new ATP synthesis
Oxygen Debt
Cannot keep electron transport system running - produce LACTIC ACID.
Muscle fiber types:
- Fast twitch - Slow twitch
Fast Twitch Muscle Fiber
Large amounts of force, short time.
Slow Twitch Muscle Fiber
Slow, steady amount of force, long period of time.
Fast Twitch
- Low endurance - Fewer mitochondria - Less myoglobin (white muscle) - High power
Slow Twitch
- High endurance - Many motochondria - More myoglobin (red muscle) - Less power
Muscle Growth
Increase ENDURANCE with extended periods of aerobic, low intensity exercise. Increase MUSCLE MASS with short periods of high intensity exercise.
- Anabolic = Synthesis = New muscle growth - Derivatives of testosterone - Multiple side effects (masculinization, reproductive changes, emotional changes, cardiovascular changes, cancer)
The Circulatory System
- Pump blood - Maintain proper blood pressure & regulate blood flow to different tissues - Deliver gases & nutrients to tissues - Control body temperature
2 Types of Valves
- Atrioventricular Valves - Semilunar Valves
Atrioventricular Valves
Between atria and ventricle; prevent backflow into atria.
Semilunar Valves
Between ventricle and aorta or pulminary trunk; prevents backflow into ventricle.
Chordaea Tendinaea
Support atrioventricular valves, prevent from opening backwards.
Closure of Valves
Causes heart sounds (lub dub).
Closure of AV valves.
Closure of semilunar valves.
Carry blood AWAY from heart.
Carry blood BACK TO heart.
Heart Murmur
Valve isn't sealed; blood leak.
Normal Blood Pressure:
- 120/80 mmHg - 120 = systolic - 80 = diastolic
Ventricle contracts
Ventricle relaxes
Ventricle contracts & empties; AV valves close.
Ventricle relaxes & fills; semilunar valves close.
Contraction of Heart
- Atria contract first - Ventricles contract afterward
Pwave; QRS complex; Twave
SA Node
- Fires spontaneously; pacemaker. - Responds to demands, changes rate. - Atrium fires first. - Reaches atriventricular node, delays impulse. - Bundle of His - Purkinjie Fibers - Ventricular muscle - Causes heart to squeeze from bottom of ventricle.
Carotid Artery
Blood to head
Jugular Vein
Blood from head to heart.
Blood to body.
Vena Cava
Blood from body to heart.
Pulmonary Trunk & Arteries
Blood to lungs.
Coronary Artery
Blood to heart muscle.
- Thick, smooth muscle. - Used to control where blood flows (diameter changes. vasoconstriction, tighter; vasodilation, open up). - Resist pressure generated by heart (generate back pressure - blood pressure)
- One cell thick (endothelial) - Nutrients diffuse out of blood - Good exchange
- Thin walled - Less pressure - 1-way valves - only allow blood to flow towards heart
Skeletal muscle contractions squeeze veins and force more blood back to:
Fluid loss from capillaries:
- Little bit of blood pressure will drive fluid out of capillaries. - Just fluid portion of blood - no red cells, yellowish color. (lymph, accumulation causes swelling of tissues - edema).
Lymphatic System
- Picks up lymph fluid & returns it to blood stream. - Lymph nodes have high concentrations of white blood cells. - Obstruction causes major swelling.
Blood Pressure Measurement
- Only hear tapping when cuff pressure is between systolic & diastolic. - Inflate cuff to 170 mmHg (no sound). - Deflate cuff & listen. First sounds cuff pressure = systolic pressure. Last sounds cuff pressure = diastolic pressure.
Cardiac Output
Liters of blood flow/minute. - Know beats/minute - heart rate. - Know volume of blood/beat - stroke volume.
Coronary Artery Disease
Atherosclerosis - Cholesterol plaques accumulate, prevent blood flow.
High Blood Pressure
Silent disease process; heart must work harder; heart thickens and becomes less elastic.
Heart Attack
Death of tissue, poor pumping ability.
Can occur in young and old. Electrical conduction problem.
Coronary artery bypass, balloon angioplasty, heart transplantation, artificial heart.
Drugs can be used to lower blood pressure and prevent arrhythmias.
Balloon Angioplasty
Expand balloon, push plaque against walls, open vessel.
Coronary Artery Bypass
Transplant vein from leg into heart, connect from aorta to coronary artery - "bypass".
Obstruction in arteries feeding brain.
Organ Transplants
- Heart, lung, liver, kidney most common. - Must match to patient's blood type/immune system. - Requires lifelong immunosuppression to prevent rejection. - Many more recipients than donors available.
The Respiratory System
- Exchange gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) - Balance pH of blood - Communication - Prefix: pulmo-, bronch-
- Filters, humidifies incoming air. - Outgoing air - recovers H2O, condenses H2O
- Back of throat - Connects mouth & nose
- Voice box - vocal cords
- Rigid, cartilaginous rings (prevent collapse during inhalation)
- Carry air to/from lungs (branch off from trachea) - Branch into smaller tubes (bronchioles) - Branch into alveoli (site for gas exchange)
Flap covers/seals trachea.
Contraction, drops and flattens, inhalation (inspiration); relax, pillows upward into chest.
- Pull on rib cage - Inspiration: ribs separate, lift. - Expiration: ribs move down, inward.
- Movement of air is caused by changing volume of chest cavity. - Volume ^ = v Pressure (air flows in) - Volume v = ^ Pressure (air flows out) - Controlled by the brain/medulla oblongata/brain stem.
Gas Exchange
- Alveoli - right next to pulmonary capillaries. - Maximal storage area for quick gas exchange.
Lung Volumes
5-6 liters at full capacity.

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