This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.

Semester 1 Exam Vocabulary


undefined, object
copy deck
process by which water changes from a liquid into an atmospheric gas
populatio of algae and other small, photosynthetic organisms found near the surface of the ocean and forming part of plankton
primary succession
succession that occurs on surfaces where no soil exists
layer of permanently frozen subsoil in the tundra
aphotic zone
permanently dark layer of the oceans below the photic zone
reactant of an enyme-catalyzed reaction
organism that obtains energy by eating both plants and animals
prominent horizontal banding of organisms that live in a particular habitat
organism that obtains energy from the foods it consumes
substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates, such as sugars and starches
deoxyribonucleic acid
nucleic acid that contains the sugar deoxyribose
ecosystem in which water either covers the soil or is present at or near the surface of the soil for at least part of the year
possibe explanation for a set of observations or possible answer to a scientific question
average, year-after-year conditions of temperature and precipitation in a particular region
basic unit of all forms of life
controlled experiment
a test of the effect of a single variable by changing it while keping all other variables the same
The material dissolved in the solvent
metric system
decimal system of measurement based on certain physical standards and scaled on multiples of ten
compound light microscope
microscope that allows light to pass through a specimen and uses two lenses to form an image
the scientific study of interactions among organism and between organisms and their environment
single sugar molecule
the use of one or more senses to gather information
biotic factor
biological influence on organisms within an ecosystem
macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes
compound that forms H+ Ions in solution
symbiotic relationship in which one organism lives in or on another organism (the host) and consequently harms it
substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
term used to refer to a tree that sheds its leaves during a particular season each year
limiting nurtient
single nurtient that either is scarce or cycles very slowly, limiting the growth of organisms in an ecosystem
term used to refer to trees that produce seed-bearing cones and have thin leaves shaped like needles
trophic level
step in a food chain or food web
basic unit of matter
The substance in which a solute dissolves to form a solution.
photic zone
well-lit upper layer of the oceans
symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit from the relationship
a signal to which an organism responds
manipulated variable
factor in an experiment that a scientist purposely changes
an attraction between molecules of different substances
process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment
ammino acid
compound with an amino group on one end and a carboxyl group on the other end
monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogeneous base
A negatively charged subatomic particle located outside the nucleus.
cell culture
group of cells grown in a nutrient solution from a single original cell
coastal ocean
marine zone that extends from the lowtide mark to the end of the continental shelf
protein that acts as a biological catalyst
spontaneos generation
the disproven hypothesis that life could arise from nonliving matter
organisms that live attached to or near the ocean floor
interaction in which one organism captures and feeds on another organism
manipulated variable
independent variable, syn.
atoms of the same elements that have different numbers neutrons on their nuclei
set of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes
conditions of Earth's atmosphere at a particular time and place
collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier that separates the cell from its surroundings
tropical zone
warm climate zone that recieves direct or near direct sunlight year round
asexual reproduction
process by which a single parent reproduces by itself
biogeochemical cycle
process in which elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another
chemical reaction
process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals
sexual reproduction
process by which cells of two different parents unite to produce the first cell of a new organism
group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area
the organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world
organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds
chemical substance that an organism requires to live
small unit that can join together with other small units to form polymers
ionic bond
a bond that forms when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another (results in a positive ion and a negative ion)
ribonucleic acid
single-stranded nucleic acid that contains the suger ribose
temperate zone
moderate climate zone between the polar zones and the tropics
full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism uses those conditions
greenhouse effect
natural situation in which heat is retained in Earth's atmosphere by carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other gases
organism that obtains energy by eating animals
ecological succession
gradual change in living communities that follows a disturbance
cell fractionation
technique in which cells are broken into pieces and the different cell parts are separated
device that produces magnified images of structures that are too small to see with the unaided eye
responding variable
dependent variable, syn.
electorn microscope
microscope that forms an image by focusing beams of electrons onto a specimen
movement of individuals out of an area
tiny animals that from part of the plankton
activation energy
energy needed to get a reaction started
secondary succession
succession following a disturbance that destorys a community without destroying the soil
organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce food from inorganic compounds
food web
network of complex interactions formed by the feeding relationships among the various organisms in an ecosystem
covalent bond
a chemical bond that involves sharing electrons between atoms in a molecule
mangrove swamp
coastal wetland dominates by mangroves, salt-tolerant woody plants
process by which some organisms, such as certain bacteria, use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates
pure substance consisting entirely of one type of atom
Predator-prey relationship
mechanism of population control in which a population is regulated by predation
mixture of 2 or more substances that is homogeneous; consists of a solute and a solvent
total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level
compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms
coral reef
diverse and productive environment named for the coral animals that make up its primary structure
polar zone
cold climate zone where the sun's rays strike Earth at a very low angle
organism that relies on other organisms for its energy and food supplies
collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving environment
food chain
series of steps in an ecosystem in which organisms transfer enrgy by eating and being eaten
organism's capacity to grow or thrive when subjected to an unfavorable environmental factor
Demographic transition
change in a population from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates
Density-dependent limiting factor
limiting factor that depends on population size
compound that forms OH- ions in solution
Density-independent limiting factor
limiting factor that affects all populations in similar ways, regardless of population size
the positively charged dense center of an atom; contains protons and neutrons
the part of Earth where life exists including land, water, and air or atmosphere
responding variable
factor in an experiment that a scientist wants to observe, which may change in response to the manipulated variable
science that seeks to understand the living world
salt marsh
temperate-zone estuary dominated by the salt-tolerant grasses above the low-tide zone and by seagrasses under water
Logistic growth
growth pattern in which a population's growth rate slows or stops following a period of exponential growth
the area where an organism lives, including the biotic and abiotic factors that affect it
abiotic factor
physical, or nonliving, factor that shapes an ecosystem
Exponential growth
growth pattern in which the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate
group of ecosystems that have the same climate and dominant communities
algal bloom
an immediate increase in the ammount of algae and other producers that results from a large input of a limiting nutrient
logical interpretation based on prior knowledge and experience
relationship in which two species live closely together
conversion of nitrates into nitrogen gas
Carrying capacity
largest number of individuals of a population that a given environment can support
particals of organic material that provide food for organisms at the base of an estuary's food web
biome in which the winters are cold but summers are mild enough to allow the ground to thaw
any necessity of life, such as water, nutrients, light, food, or space
a mixture in which fine particles are suspended in a fluid where they are supported by buoyancy
primary productivity
rate at which organic matter is created by producers in an ecosystem
the body of knowledge that scientists have built up
group of ecosystems that have the same climate and dominant communities
symbiotic relationship in which one member of the association benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed
material formed from decaying leaves and other organic matter
a material composed of two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically combined
Limiting factor
factor that causes the growth of a population to decrease
assemblage of different populations that live togeter in a defined area
the smallest unit of most compounds
element or compound that enters into a chemical reaction
wetlands formed where rivers meet the ocean
loss of water from a plant through its leaves
scientific study of human populations
competitive exclusion principle
ecological rule that states that no two species can occupy the same exact niche in the same habitat at the same time
nucleic acid
macromolecule containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorous
weak acid or bas that can react with strong acids and bases to help prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH
ecological pyramid
diagram that shows the relative ammounts of energy or matter within each trophic level in a food change or food web
macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
kelp forest
coastal ocean commmunity named for its dominant organism-kelp, a giant brown alga
element or compound produced by chemical reaction
large macromolecule formed from monosaccharides
organism that breaks down and obtains energy from dead organic matter
well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations
information gathered from observations
Age-structure diagram
graph of the number of males and females within different age groups of a population
pH scale
scale that runs from 0 (strongly acidic) to 14 (strongly basic or alkaline); measurement system used to indicatee the concentration of Hydrogen Ions (H+) in solution
an attraction between molecules of the same substance
dense covering formed by the leafy tops of tall rain forest trees
large compound formed from combinations of many monomers
Population density
number of individuals per unit of area
organism that feeds of plant and animal remains and other dead matter
climate within a small area that duffers significantly from the climate of the surrounding area
nitrogen fixation
process of converting nitrogen gas into ammonia
layer in a rain forest formed by shorter trees and vines
tiny, free-floating organisms that occur in aquatic environmentss
atom that has a positive or negative charge
van der Waals forces
a slight attarction that develops b/t the opposityly charged regions of nereby molecules
group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
organism that obtains energy by eating only plants
pioneer species
first species to populate an area during primary succession
movement of individuals into an area occupied by an existing population

Deck Info