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Bio- Day 1


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What is the function of the conducting zone of the respiratory system?                    

1) Filter & clean air

2) Humidify (moisten) inhaled air 

Breathes in air
Nasal cavity
lined with mucus and cilia, sends info to olfactory cortex
tube from nasal cavity to esophagus
posterior to nasal cavity, serves only as air passageway

voice box;

1. provide an open airway

2. act as a switching mechanism to route air & food into proper channels

3. voice production 

covers trachea; opens to breathe, closes for food
hard palate
made of bone, cews food
soft palate
blocks passage of food from going up to nose
prevents food from going up nose
keep air passage open, where air flows
bronchi (primary)
air passageway connecting trachea with alveoli, cleans, warms and moistens incoming air
What is the function of the respiratory zone of the respiratory system?
Gas exchange
alveolar ducts
walls consist of diffusely arranged rings of smooth muscle cells, connective tissue fibers, and outpocketing alveoli
alveolar sac  
cluster of alveoli
individual air sacs
Alveolar cells (Type 1 cells)
lines inside of air sacs; simple, epithelial tissu, allows for diffusion of gas
Surfactant-secreting cells (Type 2 cells)
prevents collapse (sticky cells collapse)
Air-blood barrier
exchanges of gas between air and blood
Alveolar macrophages
last fom of defense (eat viruses)

conducting zone --> respiratory zone


Hyaline cartilage 

loss in reinforcing cartilage 



conducting zone --> respiratory zone


tissue type 

stratified to simple epithelium for gas exchange

conducting zone --> respiratory zone


mucus-secreting cells 

loss of ability to secrete mucus

conducting zone --> respiratory zone


smooth muscle 

increase in smooth muscle (allows bronchiole constriction)
visceral pleura
closest to lungs, 1st membrane
parietal pleura
outer membrane, 2nd membrane
inflammation of pleurae
What is the effect of hyposecretion of pleural fluid
will attach and stick to each other
What is the effect of hypersecretion of pleural fluid?
Lungs can't expand and gets compressed
What keeps the lungs normally inflated?
negative pressure of pleural cavity keeps lungs inflated
What occurs during inspiration?
  • diaphragm contracts and lowers
  • intercoastal muscles contract and widen
  • volume increase
  • pressure decrease
  • cavity is widened
What occurs during expiration?
  • diaphragm relaxes
  • intercoastal muscles relaxes
  • volume decreases
  • pressure increases
  • air is exhaled out of lungs
What is the equation for gas exchange at lungs?
C02 + H2O <-- H2CO3<- H+ + HCO3-
What is the role of pons in respiration?
Prevents the lungs from overfilling with oxygen
Why can't you hold your breath until you run out of oxygen?
co2/h+ activates brain centers to force breathing

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