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Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation: indulgences, his view of salvation, being "born again"
Martin Luther was a German friar. In 1517, he attacked the Catholic Church's practice of selling indulgences- or extra blessings to repent sinners in exchange for "good works," such as donating money to the church. When the papacy tried to silence him, Luther broadened his criticism to include the Mass, priests, and the pope and his revolt sparked the Protestant Reformation-- his revolt against the Catholic Church, winning support among the German public. He believed that only God alone chose whom to save, and that believers should trust in only God's love and not priests or the pope. His own spiritual struggle and deeper understanding of God, made up his process of being "born again," what later came to constitute a classic conversion experience for a Protestant, as it was practiced in North America and England.
John Calvin: predestination
Unlike Luther, he believed in an all powerful God who "predestined" most sinful humans to hell, saving only a few to exemplify his grace.
Anglican Church (Church of England)
Henry VIII wanted a male heir to ensure political stability. When his queen failed to bear a son, Henry, in 1527, requested a papal annulment of their marraige. When the pope denied his request, Henry had Parliament dissolve his marriage and proclaimed him the head of the Church of England, thus breaking tie with Rome.
Rise of Puritanism
When Elizabeth I became queen in 1558, most people were Protestant, but how Protestant was the question. A militant Calvinist minority known as the Puritans demanded wholesale purification of the Church of England from "popish abuses" and any tie to Rome. Puritanism appealed mainly to the growing middle class, the gentry, intellectuals, education clergymen, well to do peasants (but not many titled nobles who enjoyed their wealth and privilege and few really poor who struggled for mere survivfal) and Puritanism steadily gained ground.
Conversion Experience
Puritans believed that leading an outwardly moral life was not enough to earn salvation. They believed Christians must forge a committment to serve God through and act of spiritual rebirth, the conversion experience. At the moment of rebirth, a soul confronted its own unworthiness and felt the power of God.
the "elect"
After being reborn, the convert was then cemented to God as a saint- a member of the "elect" or the chosen. Only the elects could join Puritan congregations.
Appeal of Puritanism to Middle Class
Puritanism appealed mainly to the growing middle class of English society- the gentry, university educated clergymen and intellectuals, merchants, shopkeepers, artisans, and well to do peasants. Self discipline was central to the spiritual and worldly dimensions of these people's lives.
Separatists and Non-Separatists
The Stuart monarchs opposed Puritan efforts to eliminate the office of the bishop which was appointed by the king. So the separatists gave up hope of transforming the Church of England into independent congregations of "saints," so the separatists decided to leave the corrupt state church. Some went to Calvinist Holland and from there to Plymouth in New England.

Non Separatists continued to try to reform the Church of England from within.
Puritan Sense of Crisis in England
Under Charles I, Anglican authorities campaigned to eliminate Puritan influence within the church. Church courts harassed Puritans with fines and even excommunication. Hard economic times also added to the Puritan plight. Wages fell 50%, there was massive unemployment, and war in Europe made the economy even worse. They believed that these problems were contributing to a spiritual and moral crisis in England because they couldn't survive.
The Legacies of the Reformation
4 major legacies
1. It created almost all of the major Christian traditions that took root on American soil: Protestantism, modern Roman Catholicism and radical Protestantism and groups seeking human perfection.
2. Protestants valued literacy; they demanded that believers carefully read God's Word translated from Latin. Newly invented printing press spread the new faith; wherever Protestantism flousished, so did general education and religious teaching.
3. Protestants denied that God endowed priests with special powers. Instead, the Church was a "priesthood of all believers." Novel idea---people were responsible for their own spiritual and moral conditions.
4. THe Reformation and Counter-Reformation created a new crusading spirit in Europe that coincided with overseas expansion. Their spirit justified European's assumption of superiority over the non-Christian people in Africa and the Americas and their seizing of their land and resources.
the "maritime revolution"
In the mid-fifteenth century, Europe experienced renewed prosperity and population growth. Competition for commercial advantage led the European states to look overseas. Improved maritime technology allowed this expansion: the triangular sail made the cargo ship more maneuverable. The compass and astrolabe allowed mariners to calculate their bearings on the open sea. Scholars corrected ancient geographical data and drew better accurate maps, all these led to the Maritime revolution.
the Portuguese contribution
Prince Henry, the navigator of Portugal had two goals, to find new markets and to fight the Muslims. He encouraged Portuguese seamen to pilot their caravels (a very navigable ship) farther down the African coast searching for weak spots in Muslim defense and for trade oppurtunities. For more than a century, the Portuguese remained an imperial presence in hte Indian Ocean and the East Indies. They also brought Europeans face to face with black Africans.
Slavery in traditional African society
Slavery was well established in the 15th century in West Africa as elsewhere. The grassland emperors as well as individual families depended on slave labor. Most slaves or their children were absorbed into African families over time.
the "new" slavery
The Portuguese were the key slave traders for a long time. Some African countries like Congo, Angola, became rich in servicing the slave trade. The "new" slave trade was a high volume business that expanded at a steady rate as Europeans colonized the Western Hemisphere and established plantations there. Before the Atlantic slave trade ended in the 19th Century, nearly 12 million Africans were shipped across the sea. The slaves performed exhausting mindless labor. Because of their color and alien religion, Europeans dehumanized them and thus justified the brutal treatment of slaves.
Christopher Columbus:
- motives, methods, accomplishments
1451-1506 He embodied Europe's varied motive for expansion. Son of Italian weaver, he was obsessed by the idea that Europeans could reach Asia by sailing westward across the Atlantic. He thought the world was much smaller than it actually is. As for motives, religious fervor led Columbus to teh dream of carrying Christianity across the globe; he also hungered for wealth and glory, as well as to break the Portuguese monopoly on Asian trade. His methods- he wanted to sale to Asia by going westward across the Atlantic. His accomplishments-1492- his ships made landfall off the North American coast at a small island he named San Salvador. Although he never actually reached Asia, treasures and descriptions of this new land prompted other explorers to sail West= Italian, Portuguese, Spaniards.
Treaty of Tordesillas
Word of Columbus's discovery of North America fired Europeans' imaginations, and induced the Spanish and Portuguese to sign the treaty of Tordesillas dividing all future discoveries amongst themselves based on latitudinal lines.
John Cabot
John Cabot of England ignored the Treaty of Tordesillas and sent an Italian navigator John Cabot westward across teh Northern Atlantic in 1497. Cabot claimed Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and the rich Grand Banks fisheries for England.
Amerigo Vespucci
An Italian whom America is named for.
a spanish conqueror
land grants; grants for both land and the labor of the Indians who lived on it. Those who were given encomiendas, harshly exploited the native people. The grants were given to Europeans. Thousands of Indians died from overwork and diseases brought by the Europeans .
Hernan Cortes and the Aztecs
1519, young nobleman who led a small band of Spaniards to the Mexican Coast and marched inland to conquer Mexico. By then the Aztecs the civilization living there was very advanced. With horses and firearms, Cortes was able to defeat the Aztecs (who were badly decimated by disease) and by 1521 Hernan began building Mexico City on the ruins of Tenochtitlan the past capital of the Aztecs.
The Black Legend
The bloody history of Spain's American conquests and efforts to dominate Europe created the Back legend--- Protestant Europeans vision of a tyrannical, fannaticaly Catholic Spain intent on conquering everything in sight.
1st Europeans in North America
By the beginning of the 17th century, the general outlines of Europeans' claims in North America emerged. Spain established ranches in New Mexico and fortresses in Florida. Virginia's victory over the Indians strengthened the English claim in Chesapeake, where Tobacco became the main crop. In Plymouth, the English depended mainly on farming. Dutch, Swedish and French colonists traded in fur and fish, they were mainly in the North.
Growing English Interest in the New World
Expansion would help with the English domestic instabilities of the times because they could ship the unemployed poor overseas to relieve their economic woes. Moreover, these "surplus" people would provide markets for English cloth and they could produce the raw materials.
Francis Drake: Sea Dog and Explorer
When Elizabeth I became queen in 1558, England was still a minor power, and stood on the sidelines as Spain and France grappled for European supremacy. Sir Francis Drake was one of the sea dogs who were lusting for action overseas. Good relationship with Spain had broken down and Elizabeth was secretly encouraging Drake to seek venture overseas. Drake was successful in raiding Spanish fleets and cities. He also sailed around the world in 1577-1580 to conquer sites for colonies. In 1598, Drake died fighting in the Caribbean.
The Roanoke Experience
A settlement established in 1585 on Roanoke Island failed miserably because the colonists refused to grow their own food, expecting the Indians to feed them and had worn out their welcfome. 110 colonists, many of them members of families reached Roanoke Island without much provision. Their leader, John White, returned

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