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Ancient History 2


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„l Lugal
elected during a secular crisis, Dictator
 Heinrich Schliemann
German merchant interested in Homer, goes searching and finds Troy and AgamemnonÂ’s palace in 1870Â’s, loved the story of Troy, found
Sir Arthur Evans
finds the Palace at Knossos in 1908, by searching for some rare “milk stones” only found at one place, used story of Minos for excavation in Crete
Howard Carter and Lord Carnarvon
finds tomb of Pharaoh Tutankamon, room full of gold, thought a missing tomb must be with TutÂ’s estate and they found it
„« Philology
The study of languages
„X Rosetta Stone
helped decipher Egyptian hieroglyphics, 3 languages: sandskrit, Greek, and Egyptian hieroglyphics, translated 1799-1822
Core Culture
Africa, South America, Great Britain
Flake Culture
Asia, Burma, North America
The Copper-Stone Age
3600-2800 BC
The Ziggurat
religious center, physical/geographic town center „³ easier to defend
„l Level 1: Temple ¡V interaction between Earthly and Heavenly
„l Level 2: Abode ¡V housing for priests, providings for gods
„l Level 3: Granery/Storage ¡V things of value protected, safe from floods
„l Level 4: Foundation ¡V solid, protection from flood
„l Made of colored brick and colored clay or dyes
The Early Bronze Age
Sargon the Great
First to Unite Sumer and Akkad, lasted 150 years, 2400-2250. Brought Akkadian into culture, and secularism.
Old Kingdom Egypt
2800-2000BC, Egypt's golden age
Trusted helper of pharaoh, appointed by pharaoh
„X Sineferou
Built first real pyramid
The Middle Bronze Age
2000-1600 BC
„« Akkadians -> replaced by Babylonians/Amorites
„« Egypt -> Middle Kingdom
„« Crete and Aegeans -> Minoans
Ruling tribe of Sumer/Mesopotamia from 2000-1600BC?
„« Amorites ruling tribe
„X Indo-Europeans on migration
„X Semitic ¡V among 1st to form Egypt
„« Build Babylon
„« Hammurabi
Middle Kingdom Egypyt
„X Mentuhotep
„l 2040-1990 BC
„l 50 year rule ¡V had peace with nobility
„l brought peace + stability = prosperity
„l pharaoh NOT godlike
„X Amonhotep III
„l 1840-1796 BC
„l named after new god Amon ¡V close to Re
„l internal improvements
„l had the Fayum built „³ Lake Moeris
„« Hittites came from _______ across __________
Ukraine/Balck Sea
„X 3rd Great King of the Hittites
„X +/- 1600 BC
„X gets greedy, but has advantages of horses and iron
„X brought down Hammurabi with men on horseback
„X conquered Babylonian empire
Imperial Bronze Age
Collapse of the Bronze Age
„« Syria and Palestine during collaps of Bronze Age
„X Between Egyptians and Hittites
„X Crossroads culture
„X Protected by sea and mountains
„X Commercialism
„X Canaanites
„l Descendants of Indo-European migrates
„l Free to govern themselves
„l Turn into Phoenicians, Arameans, and Hebrews
„X Saul (1020-1000 BC)
„l Judges ¡V tribal, military, religious leaders
„l 1st King of ¡§Nation¡¨
„l appointed when Philistines attacked Israelites „³ emergency forces leadership
„l Philistines ¡V ¡§giants¡¨, warlike, bigger by proof from Israelites
„l Solomon the Wise
950 - old testament in Aramaic
Wadi Tumilat
Connects Red Sea and Nile
 Nebuchadnezzar (605-562 BC)
 Greatest king of Chaldeans
 Rebuilds Babylon
 Builds walls surrounding- “The Ishtar Gate,” “The Sacred Way”
 Hanging gardens- ancient wonder of world
≈ build for wife who missed mountain homeland
 Interested in literature
 Left the science to the priests
 ignored military
 conquered by Persians
¡Ö From _______ the Athenians watch Athens burned
 Po River Valley (Garden of Eden)
Settled by Etruscans:≈ Fertile land, perfect climate
≈ Fought over by all major powers to come
≈ Protection from mountains (Alps and Apennines)
≈ Protection from sea on East
≈ Livestock flourishes
≈ Material wellbeing
≈ Vitelia= land of cattle(Roman)- Italy
 700-600: Alps to Naples- control of Adriatic
 Ancestors of Romans
 Proof of civilization in artwork in underground tombs
≈ Secular, lavish art
≈ Leisure depicted, picture of life at that time- comfort and wealth
 First civilization with large middle class
 Safety, peace, great abundance
Ephebic Oath
Serve City, Citizens, and then the Gods
„X Pindar from ___, Sappho from _____.

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