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A response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience (thoughts). Exist to enhance our survival.
James-Lange Theory
The theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness to our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli. Body response before emotion.
Cannon-Bard Theory
The theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion.
two-factor theory
Schacter-Singer's theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal.
a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion (such as perspiration and cardiovascular and breathing changes).
emotional release. In psychology, the catharsis hypothesis maintains that "releasing" aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges.
Feel-good, do-good phenomenon
people's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood.
subjective well-being
self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along with measures of objective well-being (for example, physical and economic indicators) to evaluate people's quality of life.
adaptation-level phenomenon
our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience.
Relative deprivation
the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself.
the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging.
general adaptive syndrome (GAS)
Selye's concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in three states-alarm, resistance, exhaustion.
coronary heart disease
the clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leading cause of death in many developed countries.
type a
Friedman and Rosenman's term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive and anger-prone people.
type b
Friedman and Rosenman's term for easygoing, relaxed people.
psychophysiological illnesses
literally, "mind-body" illness; any stress-related physical illness, such as hypertension and some headaches.
psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)
the study of how psychological, neural, and endocrine processes together affect the immune system and resulting health.
the two types of white blood cells that are part of the body's immune system: B lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections; T lymphocytes form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances.

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