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sir william osler
doctor at mcgill
king chardles the second. was treated by his doctor to rid him of disrupted humurs.. which are no known as
the study of urine
brown urine indicates
liver problems
excess vitamin b2 indicates what colour
yellow urin
gas chromatorgraphy and mass spectrometry is used today to analyze urine , how manny differnt compounds were found .
life expectancy at the end of the last century was
presently the life expectancy is
the mortality rate for women in the 1940s was about 50/1000 birts in the 1940s, this dropped to 1/1000 in 1980 due to the use of
andorra has a life expectancy rate of
world life expectancy average is

it is estimated that what percent of the world population by 2020 will be over 65
16 percent
worlds longest living person in the world is believed to be
lizzie bolden 115
the oldest person ever on record was
jeanne calment 122
if you are 20 years old you have a ? chance of having a living grandmother
a century ago, a 20 year old would have a ? percent chance of having a living mother!
current deaths in the world are largely due to infectious diseases such as
respiratory 5 m
dirraheal 3 m
tuberculosis 3 m

the 1918 flu influenza is estimated to have caused how many deaths in the world
30-50 mill
what caused most of the flus in the 1918 influenza?
baceterial pneumonia
small pox was totally eradicated by a
the WHO worth health organization suggests that ? million lives hvr been saved in arround 20 years with the use of vaccinations
40 million
polio is almost eradicated, it is down to how many cases per year around the world
leprosay in the 1980s caused how many deaths
12 million
leprosay or hansens dease has been reduced to only caused how many deaths per year
less than one million
leprosay is controlled using a
multi drug therapy
with the guinea worm disease, the water flea carries a
nematode larvae
the simple non drug eradiction used to prevend guinea worm disease is to.
filter the water
ballon angioplasty or a roto router treatment is aleve
was instrumental in the deelopment of tools of diagnosis
sir william osler
who said to listen carefully to your patient, as they will tell you the diagnosis
sir william osler
what is a drug
a chemical agent that affects living matter

drug effects have to have effieceinet rates of over ? in order to be distinguised from the placebo effect
30-35 percent
prescription drugs is a ? billion dollar market in north amaerica this year
over the counter drugs was a ? billion dollar market in norht america this year
the drug market goes up about how many percent each year?
5-8 percent
the sumerians had how many beer recipes
the poppy is a plant which is used in parmaceutical drugs. What is derived from the poppy that is an active ingredient in morphine?
who tried to explude supersisition
hippocrates remedie which cured nightblindess with the use of a ? is nottable because it contains a high source of vitamin A
ox liver
who controls drug testing a licensing
dioscories wrote de materia medica, a large tome with information about plants and their parmeceuitcal effects, among those plants described were
arum dioscordies- expectorant
saffrom- used to make tea

pharmakon means
maimonides prescribed ? to treat leprosy, hemmorhouds, cold and constipation
browth of fowl
What doctor wrote alot in code?
doctor paracelsus
what did doctor paracelsus say about the doctrine of humors
that he did not agree with it and that the proof comes from experiment and reasoning not such elements such as air, water etc
paracelsus was against polypharmacy, what does this mean
using more than one drug at a time
is the practise that uses incredibly diulute substances to treat disease
the idea that god markets everything he had created with a sign was called the
doctrine of signatures
assited in the condition one known as dropsy, where one would drop to their knees due to lack of fluic accumulation.
fox glove plant
lanoxin is used for? and is derived from the ? plant
congestive heart failure, foxglove plant
who was the first to find the use of foxglove? who was a competitor
william withering, darwin
what percent of children are affected with malaria in the congo
50 percent
380 species of the anopheline mosquito yet only ? of which are able to succesfully transmit the disease
malaria is known to slow the economic growth of africa at the rate of over ? per year
how many cases, deaths per year and how many children die of malaria every year
120 million
1-2 mill
1 million

what was the early cure of malaria was ? and what plant was it extracted from
quinnine, cinchona plant
who were the first to purify quinnine from bark in 1820?
pelletier and caventou
in order to prevent malaria, the british would drink ?
because it contained quinnine
gin and tonic because it contains quinnine
why do chemists synthesize and modify the chemical structures of biologically active compounds?
to find more efeect and less toxic compounds
ddt in the 1940s was used to battle
by 1966 it was estimated that ddt helped prevent malaria by saving ? many lives
500 million
what are the downsides of ddt/
causes the shells of bird eggs to crack prematurely- hampers bird reporduction, resulting in its ban
what are other possible ways to combate malaria?
insecticide treated nets
geneticall modified parasite resistant mosquitoes so that they will overbreed the entire mosquito population.
a chinese herbal remedy

plagues were initially associated with
bad air
in fact, plagues were associated with?
rats and bad hygiene in the cities of europe
was the first to purfiy morphine in 1805
friedrich sertuner
dr joseph lister made some very important discoveries in medicine, some which include
listerine, was used for dandruff control and as a deodarant..
it contains thymol and alcohol
propofol- amnesia- killed michael jackson

bht is used to
keep cereal boxes fresh

feeding rats bht increases their longevity by
joseph lister first believed that the cure to contamination issues in the surgery room was to spray ? around the room. but then later realized that ?
phenol, washing your hands was sufficient.
what was introduced by thomas toddick?

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