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Anthropology Chapters 1-6


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organized life in groups
traditions and customs that govern behavior and beliefs
the process by which organisms cope with environmental stresses.
general anthropology
four subdisciplines:
cultural anthropologists
study human society and culture
account of a particular community, society, or culture, field work
examines, analyzes, and compares the results of ethnography
archaelogical anthropology
reconstructs, describes, and interprets human behavior and cultural patterns through material remains.
biological (or physical) anthropology
the study of the human species and its immediate ancestors
linguistic anthropology
examines liguistic variation in time and space
a specifically designed health threat by a bacterium, etc.
interested in the whole of the human condition
members of the zoological family that includes fossil and living humans
medical anthropology
unites biological and cultural anthropologists in the study of disease, etc.
scientific medicine
a health system based on scientific knowledge and procedures
complex societies
nations, large and populous, with social stratification and central governments
cultural consultant
someone the ethnographer gets to know in the field, who teaches him or her about their society and culture
the research strategy that focuses on native explanations and criteria of significance
the research strategy that emphasizes the observer's rather than the native's explanations, catagories, and criteria of significance
genealogical method
procedures by which ethnographers discover and record connections of kinship, descent, and marriage, using diagrams and symbols
informed consent
an agreent sought by ethnographers from community members to take part in research
longitudinal research
long-term study of community, society, culture, or other unit, usually based on repeated visits.
participant observation
a characteristic ethnographic technique; taking part in the events one is observing, describing, and analyzing.
the exchange of cultural features that results when groups come into continuous firsthand contact; the original culture patterns of either or both groups may be altered, but the groups remain distinct
borrowing between cultures either directly or through intermediaries
the social process by which culture is learned and tranmitted across the generations
the tendency to view one's culture as best and to judged solely by their own standards
the accelerating interdependence of nations in a world system linked economically and through mass media and modern transportation systems
human rights
Doctrine that invokes a realm of justice and morality beyond and superior to particular countries, cultures, and religions. Human rights, usually seen as vested in individuals, would include the right to speak freely, to hold religious beliefs without persecution, and not to be enslaved.
independent invention
Development of the same culture trait or pattern in separate cultures as a result of comparable needs and circumstances.
international culture
Cultural traditions that extend beyond national boundaries.
national culture
Cultural experiences, beliefs, learned behavior patterns, and values shared by citizens of the same nation.
different cultural symbol-based traditions associated with subgroups in the same complex society.
achieved status
Social status that comes through talents, actions, efforts, activities, and accomplishments, rather than ascription.
ascribed status
Social status (e.g., race or gender) that people have little or no choice about occupying.
The process of change that a minority group may experience when it moves to a country where another culture dominates; the minority is incorporated into the dominant culture to the point that it no longer exists as a separate cultural unit.
The political, social, economic, and cultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended time.
cultural colonialism
Within a nation or empire, domination by one ethnic group or nationality and its culture/ideology over others e.g., the dominance of Russian people, language, and culture in the former Soviet Union.
Rule assigning social identity on the basis of some aspect of one's ancestry.
Policies and practices that harm a group and its members.
ethnic group
Group distinguished by cultural similarities (shared among members of that group) and differences (between that group and others); ethnic group members share beliefs, values, habits, customs, and norms, and a common language, religion, history, geography, kinship, and/or race.
Identification with, and feeling part of, an ethnic group, and exclusion from certain other groups because of this affiliation.
Destruction by a dominant group of the culture of an ethnic group.
A rule that automatically places the children of a union or mating between members of different socioeconomic groups in the less privileged group.
The view of cultural diversity in a country as something good and desirable; a multi- cultural society socializes individuals not only into the dominant (national) culture, but also into an ethnic culture.
Once a synonym for ethnic group, designating a single culture sharing a language, religion, history, territory, ancestry, and kinship; now usually a synonym for state or nation-state.
An autonomous political entity, a country like the United States or Canada.
Ethnic groups that once had, or wish to have or regain, autonomous political status (their own country).
plural society
A society that combines ethnic contrasts, ecological specialization (i.e., use of different environmental resources by each ethnic group), and the economic interdependence of those groups.
social races
A group assumed to have a biological basis but actually perceived and defined in a social context by a particular culture rather than by scientific criteria.
Complex sociopolitical system that administers a territory and populace with substantial contrasts in occupation, wealth, prestige, and power. An independent, centrally organized political unit; a government. A form of social and political organization with a formal, central government and a division of society into classes.
Class-structured; stratified societies have marked differences in wealth, in prestige, and in power between social classes.
daughter languages
Languages developing out of the same parent language; for example, French and Spanish are daughter languages of Latin.
The existence of high (formal) and low (familial) dialects of a single language, such as German.
focal vocabulary
A set of words and distinctions that are particularly important to certain groups (those with particular foci of experience or activity), such as types of snow to Eskimos or skiers.
historical linguistics
Subdivision of linguistics that studies languages over time.
The study of communication through body movements, stances, gestures, and facial expressions.
Vocabulary; a dictionary containing all the morphemes in a language and their meaning.
The study of form; used in linguistics (the study of morphemes and word construction) and for form in general for example, biomorphology relates to physical form.
Significant sound contrast in a language that serves to distinguish meaning, as in minimal pairs.
The study of the sound contrasts (phonemes) of a particular language.
The study of speech sounds in general; what people actually say in various languages.
The study of sounds used in speech.
Language ancestral to several daughter languages.
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
Theory that different languages produce different ways of thinking.
A language's meaning system.
Study of relationships between social and linguistic variation; study of language in its social context.
The arrangement and order of words in phrases and sentences.
Nonindustrial system of plant cultivation characterized by continuous and intensive use of land and labor.
Basic unit of social organization among foragers. A band includes fewer than one hundred people; it often splits up seasonally.
An association between two or more variables such that when one changes (varies), the other(s) also change(s) (covaries); for example, temperature and sweating.
A population's system of production, distribution, and consumption of resources.
generalized reciprocity
Principle that characterizes exchanges between closely related individuals: As social distance increases, reciprocity becomes balanced and finally negative.
Nonindustrial system of plant cultivation in which plots lie fallow for varying lengths of time.
market priciple
Profit-oriented principle of exchange that dominates in states, particularly industrial states. Goods and services are bought and sold, and values are determined by supply and demand.
means of production
Land, labor, technology, and capital-major productive resources.
mode of production
Way of organizing production a set of social relations through which labor is deployed to wrest energy from nature by means of tools, skills, and knowledge.
nomadism, pastoral
Movement throughout the year by the whole pastoral group (men, women, and children) with their animals. More generally, such constant movement in pursuit of strategic resources.
People who use a food-producing strategy of adaptation based on care of herds of domesticated animals.
Small-scale agriculturist living in a state, with rent fund obligations
Competitive feast among Indians on the North Pacific Coast of North America.
One of the three principles of exchange. Governs exchange between social equals; major exchange mode in band and tribal societies.
Major exchange mode of chiefdoms, many archaic states, and some states with managed economies.
One of two variants of pastoralism; part of the population moves seasonally with the herds while the other part remains in home villages.

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