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Exploring Psychology sixth edition by Daved G. Myers


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carry outgoing information from the CNS to muscles and glands
motor neurons
neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system
sensory neurons
CNS neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs
How does information travel through the nervous system?
through three types of neurons; interneurons, sensory neurons and motor neurons
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles. Also called the skeletal nervous system
somatic nervous system
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs. Its sympathetic arouses; its parasympathetic calms
autonomic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
symapthetic nervous system
division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
parasympathetic nervous system
a simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response.
Incoming information to the brain is _________
outgoing information from the brain is __________
oldest and innermost region of the brain. Begins where the spinal cord enters the skull and swells slightly, forming the medulla
controls heartbeat and breathing; at base of the brainstem
inside the brainstem, between ears. Helps control arousal
reticular formation
At the top of the brainstem, egg-shaped structures. Directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions such as hear and aggression and drives such as those for food and sex. Includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus
limbic system
Two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion
a meural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion
means "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance
The neurons of the spinal cord are part of the ______________
central nervous system
Influence aggression and fear
The thalamus functions like a _____________
The ____________ receives information from the sensory neurons and routes it to the higher brain regions that control the sense.
The part of the brain that coordinates voluntary movement is the ____________.
Two parts of the limbic system are the amygdala and the _______________.
A ferocious response to electrical brain stimulation would lead you to suppose that the electrode had been touching the _______________.
The neural structure that most directly regulates eating, drinking, and body temperature is the ______________.
The reward centers discovered by Olds and Milner were located in regions of the ___________.
Cerebral cortex
the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center
How do we divide the hemispheres of the brain?
divided into four regions - frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal lobes.
frontal lobes
portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments
Parietal lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the hop of the head and toward the rear; includes the sensory cortex
Where is the motor cortex located?
at the rear of the frontal lobes
Occipital lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field.
temporal lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory info. primarily from the opposite ear.
What lobe includes the sensory cortex?
parietal lobe
Involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments
frontal lobes
sensory cortex
the area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body sensations
association areas
areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involvedin higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking and speaking.
Broca's Area
controls speech muscles via the motor cortex
Visual cortex
receives written words as visual stimulation
Angular Gyrus
transforms visual representations into an auditory code
Wernicke's Area
interprets auditory code
impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke's are (impairing understanding).
Damage to _______________ would make it hard for a person to form words, yet could sing songs with ease.
broca's area
Damage to the angular gyrus ________________________.
leaves the person able to speak and understand but unable to read
Damage to Wernicke's area does what?
disrupts understanding
Damage to Broca's area _______________.
disrupts speaking
Judging and planning are enabled by ___________.
frontal lobes
corpus callosum
the wide band of axon fibers connecting the brain's two hemispheres
the brains' capacity for modification, as evident in brain reorganization and in experiments on the effects of experience on brain development
the hypothalamus directs what?
eating, drinking sleeping, etc
the master endocrine gland
pituitary gland
endocrine system
the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another.
Influence sex, food, and aggression
adrenal glands
a pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys. The adrenal secrete the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine, which help to arouse the body in times of stress
split brain
a condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers between them.
pituitary gland
the endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands
The endocrine system, the second and slower bodily communication system, produces chemical messengers that travel throught the bloodstream and affect other tissues. These chemical substances are ___________________.
theadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes
a complex molecule containing the genetic info. that makes up the chromosomes
the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein.
natural selection
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
a random error in gene replication that leads to a genetic change
evolutionary psychology
study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection
Every cell in your body contains the genetic master code for your entire body. ___________ are threadlike structures made largely of DNA molecules.
Each person's genetic blueprint combines contributions from the mother's egg and the father's sperm. When the egg and sperm unite, each contributes ____________.
23 chromosomes
Evolutionary psychologists study how we came to be who we are. They are most likely to focus on ____________.
natural selection of the fittest adaptations.
behavio genetics
the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior
every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us.
identical twins
single egg that splits into two, making two genetically identical organisms
fraternal twins
develop from separate eggs. only share a fetal environment.
a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity.
Examples of temperament
fidgety, intense, outgoing, quiet, placid, etc.
the effect of one factor (such as environmental) depends on another factor (such as heredity).
Adoption studies seek to reveal genetic influences on personality. They do this mainly by _______________.
evaluating whether adopted children more closely resemble their adoptive parents or their biological parents
behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe "proper" behavior
personal space
the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies.
X chromosome
in men and women. Females have twol males have one.
An X chromosome from each parent produces a __________.
female child
Y chromosome
sex chromosome only in males.
When pairing an X and Y chromosome, it produces a ____________.
male child
a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave.
gender role
a set of expected behaviors for males and for females
gender identity
one's sense of being male or female
the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role
social learning theory
the theory that we learn social behavior be observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished.
gender schema theory
the theory that children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be male and female and that they adjust their behavior accordingly.

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