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CLAS022 Key Terms and Concepts


undefined, object
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Grimm's Law
(Refering to Sound Shifts from PIE to Proto-Germanic) Grimm's law was the first non-trivial systematic sound change to be discovered in linguistics; its formulation was a turning point in the development of linguistics, enabling the introduction of a rigorous methodology to historical linguistic research.
system is the current official way to represent Chinese in Roman letters
a direct ancestor of a word
Root morphemes/ free morphemes
can occur as independent words
Modern English
Phrasal lexemes
multi-word lexemes which have a unitary meaning that is not derivable from the independent meanings of their components
Lexemes with the same spelling and pronunciation
When something (like a dictionary) attempts to tell the users of the language what is "correct" or "incorrect" usage
when two vowels are pronounced as one
A group of at least two words that have the same or similar etymologies, but different meanings: Latin discus gave rise to: dish, dais, and discus.
A loanword is a word that is adopted as English and retains the same shape as the foreign term from which it originated
bound root morphemes
roots that do not occur as independent words and yet are not affixes
the loss of a vowel when one word ends in a vowel and the next word begins with a vowel. (I am = i'm)
"blend" word formation
"spork" from "fork" and "spoon"
Metathesis occurs when an order is switched (aks instead of ask).
intermediate language
a language through which a word is transferred from one language to another
related but not from a direct lineage (cousin)
What languages were borrowed from to make new words in Modern English?
Any language it can get it's hands on!
"mid-clipping" - 'flu'
writing words from one language in another language's alphabet
has significant lexical influence in English
Old English
mid-5c. CE-1066, Arrival of Angles, Saxons, and Jutes in Britain until the Norman Conquest
a prefix, suffix, or infix
The agglutinative-fusional-analytic continuum
This continuum has to do with how relationships between morphemes/words are expressed
the language that is ancestral to all Indo-European languages
idiosyncratic deformations of phrases (aka "corruptions," but these apparently usually involve phrases, not single words, and are often funny or cute) --- eggcorn instead of acorn
bound morphemes
they do not occur as independent words
Analytic Languages
Analytic languages are languages which convey the relationships between words by syntax rather than by forming new words that combine bound and unbound morphemes. (Word order matters, There is little inflection = Chinese)
"syllabic abbreviations"
first syllable of each word (or part of first syllable) ---interpol: international police
Agglutination is a linguistic process which takes a base word, such as "harm" and adds affixes to it to make larger words: harmS, harmLESS, harmLESSNESS
attaches in the middle of a word
smallest sound that is capable of carrying meaning
first letter of each word
change of quality of the vowel of a stem
Middle English
1066-late 15c., Norman Conquest until the Renaissance and the arrival of printing press in England
Three types of multiple-word lexemes
compounds, Phrasal lexemes, and Idioms
Early Modern English
late 15c.-1800, period of advancing technology and science, British empire begins
good sound, altering a word to make it pronounceable
spoken from Carolina to Labrador, and from the Atlantic to the Great Plains
The isolating-synthetic continuum
This continuum has to do with the number of morphemes per word.
lingua franca of the Amazon
al, or el
many Arabic-derived English words begin with it, means 'the'
not generally used, because it is judgemental: it comes from prescriptivist linguistics: it is probably still worth keeping around as a term for changes occurring originally or exclusively in a move from a prestige language to another language (i.e., cajun from acadian).
the mishearing or misinterpretation of a phrase, typically a standardized phrase such as a line in a poem or a lyric in a song, due to near homophony, in a way that yields a new meaning to the phrase. (i.e., "Excuse me while i kiss this guy" - Jimi Hendrix).
attaches to the ending of a word
"fore-clipping" - 'doc'
Etymological Fallacy
The etymon of any particular English word often means something quite different from the English word. Also The meaning of a term's etymon is completely separable from the meaning of the term. the idea that the meaning of a term's etymon is the "true" or "underlying" or "basic" or "mystical" meaning of a word. It is not. An etymon is a separate word with an independent but usually related meaning.
Nonce Words
Words made up ad hoc to be used at the time (UVM-ification)
Devanagari script
alphabetic script of Hindi usually used for Sanskrit as well
What are two languages borrowed from to make new words in Old English?
An old variety of Celtic (resulting from movement of people) and Latin (resulting from Christianization)
synthetic language,
there are many morphemes per word.
"Cranberry" morphemes
A useful term to describe combining forms whose original meaning is lost/not apparent.
the form of a word chosen by convention to be listed in the dictionary (lemma)
between-word metathesis (Mardon me padam)
attaches to the beginning of a word
Phonological word
a sequence of sounds
word "clipping"
result of clipping off part of a word
one fact and one hypothesis of comparative linguistics (Hypothesis)
Some of those similarities are only or best explained by descent from a common ancestor language
smallest carrier of meaning
"Unpaired words"
"uncouth: couth exists as a word, but is rare"
phrases or whole sentences: they are typically metaphorical or figurative
A calque is a word that translates a foreign word or phrase: i.e., The word "loanword" is a calque on German lehnwort ("loan-word")
"back-clipping" - 'varsity'
hyphenated compounds
lexemes that consist of two words with a hyphen
Lexemes with the same spelling but different pronunciations
any meaningful speech form in the vocabulary of a language
a word opposite in meaning to another
a reconstructed pre-historic language that is the ancestor to historic languages
When something (like a dictionary) attempts to describe language as it is commonly used
language of the Inca
the thing that you look up in the dictionary and the dictionary's task is to explain
start with an existing word and explain it as an acronym in spite of the fact that historically it is not an acronym
southern Mexico and Central America
The repetition of a word-element within the same word (Complete reduplication, Rhyme-reduplication, Alliterative reduplication, Ablaut reduplication, Productive forms)
open compounds
lexemes that consist of two words without a hyphen
Lexemes with different spellings but the same pronunciation
rough breathing
the way greek signifies the "h" before a vowel sound or after a rho
lexicon, lexical
the symbol that indicates that a form is not historically attested, but rather is reconstructed from historically attested forms
change of the form of words depending on function in use
Orthographic word
a sequence of letters bounded by spaces
deriving a simpler form from a longer form that already exists: "resurrection" is earlier than "resurrect"
Defining Vocabulary
the list of words that can be used for definitions in a dictionary.
What are two languages borrowed from to make new words in Middle English?
French (Norman Conquest) and Latin (Church and Education)
one fact and one hypothesis of comparative linguistics (Fact)
there are extensive similarities between certain languages
"characters" or graphic symbol that represents an idea, rather than a group of letters
lexemes that consist of two words
isolating language
there is one morpheme per word. Chinese is a good example.
Fusion occurs when affixes blend together with each other or the base word they are attached to in such a way that it is difficult to separate them.
When one language adopts or adapts vocabulary from another language, that creates a similarity between the two that is not explicable by descent

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