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Ch. 32 Foundation of Nursing


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Chronological age?
Very poor indicator of old age. Time elapsed since birth.
Ages for younf old, old-old, frail old, and centenarians?
young old- 55-74, old old- 75+ , frail elderly- 75+ w/ health concerns, centenarians- 100+
Which race and gender make up the majority of 65+ popluation?
white and women
Why is health care delivery becoming more complexed?
- scientific advances delaying life threatening conditions, life expectency is increasing, and more focus has been placed on ethical and legal issues related to life, disease, research , and dying.
Welness involves acheiving a balnce of ...?
emotional, physical, spiritual, social, and cultural state.
What is the primary prevention for cardiovascular disease, falls, and depression?
EXERCISE, no-smoking, and a well-balanced diet w/OUT sugar, alcohol, and fat. (Lifestyle)
Secondary prevention in older adults include..?
Early detection and treatment of disease. SCREENING for heart disease, hypertension, cancer, infectious disease, misuse of meds, nutrition, oral health, osteoporosis, falls, and social isolation.
How often should men schedule a prostate examination?
every 2 yrs.
For a person 50+, what examinations should be scheduled every 1-2 yrs?
mammogram for women, rectal exam for ALL, complete physical (1-3)
For persons 50+, when should stool for occult blood, glaucoma test, dental and pelvic examinations be screened?
What was the first major legislation that attempted to provide financial security for older adults?
a. Medi-care
b. Social Security Act of 1935
c. Medic-aid
d. American Medical Association
Mr. Smith is 56, how many years is it before Mr. Smith reaches older adulthood?
a. 9
b. 40
c. 4
d. none of the above
What is the difference between biologic theories and psychosocial issues for aging?
Biologic theories attempt to explain WHY the body ages and Psychosocial theories try to give reasons for the responses and interactions older adults have with society.
Self responsibility includes all of the following except?
a. a healthy person is attuned to their body's messages.
b. Is knowledgable to health status.
c. Identifies Health needs, makes a plan, and takes health related actions.
d. Identifies sources of stress and anxiety.
What is nutritional awareness?
A person who learns about foods that promote health and makes appropriate food selections.
Ally, Kate, Lisa, and Tim are at the grocery store. Lisa and Tim buy popcorn for their Blockbuster theme night. Ally buys carrots to snack on in class. Ally learned that carrots are essential for her vision. Kate buys a pound of prunes knowing that the f
a. Ally and Kate
b. Lisa and Kate
c. Tim
d.Tim and Ally
Identify examles of stress management?
stress, ways of coping, adaptation, and relaxation
What is not included in a healthy physical and socil environment?
a. time with friends smoking
b. support
c. giving and receiving affection
d. reinfocing wellness behaviors
List ways in which you can identify abuse in older adults? AMA guidelines
1. physical and sexual abuse
2. psychological abuse
3. misuse of asstes
4. medical abuse (with holding treatment for ADLs
5. neglect
What are the 2 most important indicator of elder abuse?
1. frequent unexplained crying
2. unexplained fear of or suspicion of a person
Akinesia (parkinsons)
abnormal state of motor and psychic hypoactivity
Aphasia (stroke)
Cerebral damage causes absent of language function
Ataxia (TIA)
transient ischemic attacks; impaired ability to coordinate movement
Claudication (PVD)
periphecramping pain in calvesral vascular disease;
Dysarthia (stroke)
Difficuly, poorly articulated speech
Why is the older adult susceptible to pressure ulcers?
The older adult loses subcutaneous fat in the skin. The fragile skin is pressed on bony prominences causing pressure ulcers.
What are some physiolohical losses in the GI? ( I and O)
nutritional problems, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), aspirations, no decreased salavia to swallow,decrease gag reflex, decrease peristalsis, INCREASED constipation and fecal impaction
Problems of GI tract?
Obesity, weight loss, lack of fluids (dehydration), oral hygiene
What are some factors to dehydration?
pt cannot grasp cup and therefore does bot dring as much or pt might decrease fluid intake to avoid incontinence
What are some complications in oral hygiene?
loss of teeth, peridontal disease,
What are some urinary system changes ?
Decreased blood supply results in decreased removal of body waste, more focus on urinating, decreased muscle tone results in increased stress incontinence, weakness of sphincters, nocturia, and decreased tissue elasticity resulting in decrease bladder capacity
Interventions for urinary system?
depends adults diaper, incontinence pads, Assess intake and output, maintain skin integrity, answer call lights stat.
What are the common concerns of respiratory system?
COPD; resp. condition asthma, emphysema: liquefy secretions, coughing technique, low0stress exercise
What are 3 changes in the endocrine system?
1. decreased production and utilization of insulin resulting in increased blood glucose levels, bc body cannnot break it down. 2. decrease release of testosterone, estrogen, progesterone (women have menopause, 3. decreased metabolic rate
What is the difference between TIA and CVA?
TIA is small spasms in the vessels of the brain.
Why do meds for older adults decrease?
If there is a decrease blood flow of the liver, fewer liver cells and liver enzymes have a difficult time functioning. Thus, causes toxicity in the body.

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