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league of nations
international association after WWI with goal of keeping peace
Francisco Franco
Spain's fascist dictator
Pankhurst and WSPU
militant organization for women's suffrage
Erwin Rommel
German general who led the Afrika Korps in North Africa
militant political movement emphasized loyalty to state and its leader
water frame
(Richard Arkwright 1769) used water power to drive spinning wheel
belief that political ties to other countries should be avoided
Battle of Coral Sea
US stopped Japan's southward advance
Operation Barbarossa
Hitler's plan to invade Russia; set up bases in Balkans
Friedrich Nietzsche
German philosopher who influenced existentialists; wrote that Western ideas stifled creativity; focused on ancient heroic values
disbanding the Japanese armed forces
Marshall Plan
US program of economic aid to euro countries to help them rebuild after WWII
Dawes Plan
$200 million loan from American banks to stabilize German economy
one of the 14 points; allow people to decide what govt they want
German air force
theory of evolution, challenged fundamental beliefs, etc.
boxer rebellion
1900 revolt in china to end foreign influence
crop rotation
rotate type of crop planted in one area to keep nurtients in soil (corn one season, then...wheat..then...rice...)
"Jewel in the Crown"
British colony of India (supplier of raw materials & british goods)
strong nation seeks to dominate other country politically/economical/socially
art movement linking the world of dreams with real life; inspired by Freud's ideas
Amelia Earhart
American pilot; first woman to fly solo across Atlantic
Reform Bill of 1832
ease property requirements allowing middle-class suffrage
Meiji era
1807-1912 Japanese history when country ruled by Emperor Mutsunito
movement founded in 1890s to promote establishment of jewish homeland in Palestine
Battle of Midway
turned the tide of war in Pacific
treaty of versailles
peace treaty signed by Germany and allies after WII
aftermath of WWII
Europe in ruins, millions died, bombing destroyed cities, countryside destroyed, displaced people left homeless
hatred for Jews; key part in Nazi ideology; blamed Jews for troubles after WWI
James Joyce
Irish-born author; used stream-of-consciousness in novel Ulysses
Karl Marx
(German Journalist) introduced Marxism
island hop
MacArthur's plan to get past Japanese strongholds; seize islands not well defended but close to Japan
(June 6, 1994) "Operation Overlord"; largest land and sea attack in history; Allied invasion of Normandy
collective farms
large government controlled farms formed by combining many smaller farms (who knew)
factors of production
land, labor, capital (wealth)
the long march
Chinese communists surrounded; forced to fled and take 6000 mile journey (that really IS a long march!)
trench warfare
form of warfare where opposing armies fight from trenches in the battle field
Battle of Britain
Luftwaffe bombed British cities; British resistance during battle forced Hitler to call off attacks
five-year plans
plans outlined by Joseph Stalin in 1928 for the development of the Soviet Union's economy
Pearl Harbor
(Dec. 7, 1941) Japanese attack on US fleets stationed in Hawaii; prompted US to declare war on Japan and its Axis allies
Douglas MacArthur
commander of Allied forces in Pacific
Dwight D. Eisenhower
American general; commander of enormous force in Europe
Final Solution
Hitler's plan of genocide
means "living space"; Hitler's idea that Germany needed to expand.
Franz Kafka
Czech-born; eerie novels feature people caught in threatening situations
Munich Conference
meeting held in Munich to keep the peace; Hitler gained Sudetenland as a result
Nuremberg Laws
restrictions on Jews; denied German citizenship and intermarrying with non-Jews
member of polynesian ppl in New Zealand around AD 800
Axis Powers
Germany, Italy, and Japan
germ theory of disease; heat kills bacteria; pasteurization
organized violence against Jews by Russians
Albert Einstein
German-born physicist; offered new ideas on space, time, energy, and matter
iron curtain
during the cold war, the coundary separating the communist nations of eastern surope from the mostly democratic nations of western europe
Hitler Youth
indoctrinate children to educate them as good German citizens; very militaristic
Sigmund Freud
Austrian physician; believed human behavior is irrational (unconscious)
Adolf Hitler
German Nazi dictator during World War II
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
atomic bombs dropped on both Japanese cities killing thousands; Japan's surrender followed
policies formed German brand of fascism
Mohandas K. Gandhi
peaceful guy, all about non-violence, inspired good changes, leader of the independence movement, combined ideas from all major religions, Mahatma, or "great soul"
surgical wards cleaned; use of antiseptics
Third Reich
Hitler's German Empire
spinning mule
(Samuel Cromptch 1779) made stronger finer thread more consistantly
T.S. Eliot
American poet in England; described postwar world as a barren wasteland drained of hope and faith
panama canal
human name waterway connecting Atlantic and Pacific 1914
home rule
control over internal manners granted to residents of region by gvt.
taiping rebellion
mid 19th century rebellion against Quing Dynasty
Japanese suicide pilots
catholic emancipation act of 1829
restored many rights to Catholics in Ireland
38th parallel
its the line on the 38th north lat that separates north and south (thanks kat!)
native ppl of Australia
Nuremberg Trials
Nazi leaders put on trial and charged with waging war of aggression
Charles de Gaulle
set up government-in-exile in London after France fell
economic system in which factors of production owned by public and operate for welfare of all
roosevelt corollary
1904 extension of Monroe Doctrine declared US public power
paris peace conference
the Big Four meet; discuss peace after WWI; 14 points
prejudice against jews (to be anti-semetic is to be anti-christian [religion test])
make-believe army attacked this city to distract Hitler from the armies mobilizing for D-Day
Treaty of Locarno
France and Germany agreed not to make war and to respect borders of France and Belgium; Germany admitted to League of Nations
Operation Torch
US forced Germany out of Africa
fourteen points
series of proposals where Wilson outlined plan for keeping peace between countries after WWII
Cultural Revolution
1966-1976 uprising in China led by the Red Guards with goal of establishing a society of peasants and workers in which all were equal
spinning jenny
(James Hargreaves) allowed spinner to work 8 threads at a time
Kellogg-Briand Peace Pact
countries pledged to renounce war as instrument of national policy
Charles Lindbergh
American pilot in 33-hour flight from New York to Paris
cotton gin
(Eli Whitney 1793) multiplied amount of cotton cleaned
Franklin Roosevelt
first president after Depression; sought to restore American faith in its nation
unrestricted submarine warfare
use of submarines to sink ships without warning
(1830 Protests held for...) right to VOTE
Salt march
a peaceful protest against the Salt Acts in 1930 in India in which Gandhi led his followers on a 240 mile walk to the sea where they made their own salt from evaporated sea water (POWER TO THE PEOPLE)
nonaggression pact
agreement between Germany and Russia never to attack each other
macadam roads
(John McAdam) roads with layered stone to drain water layered with crushed rock on top
National Government
British response to Depression; multiparty coalition passed tariffs, increased taxes, and regulated currency
russo-jap war
1904-1905 conflict between russia and japan over manchuria and korea
great famine
potato crop failure in Ireland. many Irish died, starved, immigrated (no more potato chips)
dominion status
nation allowed to govern own domestic affairs
Germanic people seen as the master race
great purge
a campaign of terror in the soviet union during the 1930s in which Joseph Stalin (scary guy) sought to eliminate all communist party members and other citizens who threatened his power
systematic killing of an entire people
coalition government
temporary alliance of several parties to form a parliamentary majority
collapse of US economy
uneven distribution of wealth, overproduction of businesses and agriculture, credit debt
Isoroku Yamamoto
Japan's greatest naval strategist called for attack on US fleet in Hawaii
extraterritorial rights
exemption of foreign residents from laws of country
chartist movement
in 19th century britain members of the working class demanded reforms in Parliament and in elections, including suffrage for all men
Battle of El Alamein
Montgomery sent to aid British forces in North Africa; Rommel and forces fell back
William Butler Yeats
Irish poet; wrote "The Second Coming" about dark times ahead
suez canal
human made waterway opened 1869 that connected Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea
foreign policy based on consideration of strategic location/products of lands
Dreyfus Affair
Captain Alfred Dreyfus, Jewish officer found guilty of treason on false evidence (b/c he was jewish)
monroe doctrine
U.S. policy of opposition to Euro interference in Latin America
first radio
light bulb, research laboratory
Doolittle's raid
bombing of Tokyo and other Japanese cities; raised American morale
psychology; unconscious mind drives actions
Atlantic Charter
joint declaration issued by Roosevelt and Churchill; upheld free trade and right to choose own government
British rule after India under british crown during reign of Queen Victoria
Lend-Lease Act
lend arms to nations vital to US
Final Stage
Nazis built extermination camps for Jews
giving in to an aggressor to keep peace
policy of glorifying military power and keeping army always prepared for war
policy that nation forces/encourages ppl to adopt its institutions/customs
Britain, France, and Scandanavia
only countries in Europe that retained democracy after Depression
Japanese-Americans; considered a threat and forced into internment camps during WWII
government control over every aspect of public and private life
New Deal
program of government to reform American economic system after the Depression; large public work projects to provide jobs for unemployed; welfare and relief programs
new popular music style emerging in postwar United States; lively, loose beat captured the new freedom of the age
Emma Goldman
spoke out for greater freedom for women; arrested for speaking about birth control
Mein Kampf
means "my struggle"; book written by Hitler about struggles in his life, written in prison
theory of relativity
theory which states that space and time change when measured relative to an object
Agricultural Revolution
innovation of tools, more crops produced, so the more crops the more selling the more advanced tools see where im going
total war
conflict where participating countries devote resources entirely to cause
belief that there is no universal meaning to life; meaning in life is created through choices people make
system factors of production privately owned, money invested in business for profit
a policy of threatening to go to war in response to any enemy aggression
segragated Jewish areas
discovered 2 elements; radioactivity
V-E Day
victory in Europe; Germany's surrender officially signed in Berlin (aka Vanessa Estavillo Day)
Warsaw Pact
a military alliance formed in 1955 by the Soviet Union and SEVEN eastern european countries
laissez-faire economics
letting owners of industry/business set working conditions at leisure
Weimar Republic
Germany's new democratic government set up in 1919
indian soldier under British command
(Jeremy Bentham) 1700s theory that gvt. actions only useful if it benefited the greatest ammount of people
belief that people should be loyal to their nation vs. a king or empire
(the last term!) a policy of reducing Cold War tensions that was adopted by the US during the presidency of Richard Nixon
adam smith
professor who defended idea of free economy (gvt. should not interfere)
Battle of Guadalcanal
"Island of Death"
Great Depression
started with the Stock Market Crash; the collapse of American and world econonomies
Industrial Revolution
"the greatly increased output of machine goods" (Eng. mid 1700s)
process of creating a government elected by the people
sino-jap war
conflict between china and japan over presence in korea
"Night of Broken Glass"; attack on Jewish communities
Popular Front
moderates, socialists, and communists formed coalition in response to Depression; passed series of reforms to help the workers
totalitarian method of instruction in the government's beliefs to mold people's minds
the adding of region to territory of existing political unit
crimean war
Ottoman empire halted russian expansion in Black Sea with British/French aid
Benito Mussolini
Italian fascist dictator
means "lightning war"; Hitler's strategy for invading Poland; fast-pace war to take enemy defenders by surprise and quickly overwhelm them
Dutch colonists in south Africa
Neutrality Acts
illegal to send/lend to nations at war
opium war
conflict btwn. Britain and China 1839-1842 over Britian's opium trade in China (even though china SAID to stop)
founded by Picasso; transformed natural shapes into geometric forms
person who organizes, manages and takes on risks of a business
1st battle of marne
schieffen plan ruined; defend Paris
Winston Churchill
British prime minister during World War II
group of communist guerrillas who with the help of N vietnam fought against the south vietnamese gvt. in the vietnam war
the North Atlantic Treaty Organization-a defensive military alliance formed in 1949 by ten Western European nations, the US, and Canada
war guilt clause
germany had to pay up for repairs
schlieffen plan
Germany's military plan: German troops rapidly defeat France
cold war (burr)
the state of diplomatic hostility between the US and the SU in the decades following WWII
Bolshevic (Revolution)
group of revolutionary Russian Marxists who took control of Russia's government in Nov. 1917
association of workers to bargain for better working conditions and higher wages
spanish-american war
1848 conflict between US and Spain with US support Cuban independance

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