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MLK jr.
-founded Southern Christian Leadership Conference -Assassinated in 1968 -Led Montgomery Bus Boycott -Led 1963 March on Washington (I Have a Dream speech)
Lyndon B. Johnson
-Succeeded JFK after he was assassinated -Led JFK's legacy with Civil Rights Act of 1964 -Great Society legislation (1964/65) -Escalated Vietnam War
Al Lowenstein
-Did so much to bring white liberals into the civil rights movement; recruiting for summer of 1964 -Tries as hard as he can to challenge the system from within -Desperately wants to persuade Robert Kennedy to run for president, Kennedy says no
Robert F. Kennedy
-Blamed himself for JFK\'s assassination, abandoned organized crime campaign afterward death -Focused on saving the children in our lives -Involved in South Africa, Peruvian mines, Cesar Chavez and the farmers unions -Tribune of the underclass -Wants to run for president in 1968 but does not want candidacy to be taken as vengeance against LBJ -Assassinated in 1968
Gene McCarthy
-Answered Al Lowenstein\'s search for a peace candidate against LBJ -Be clean for Gene
1968 National Conventions
Democratic: McCarthy is still a candidate but doesn\'t really stand a chance. Hubert Humphrey talks about the politics of joy completely inappropriately considering what is going on outside. Republican: Nixon wins nomination to \'bring us together again\' as the politics of middle America/silent majority.
Truman Doctrine
1947 -Prompted by asking for aid for Greece and Turkey -Represents the containment policy for communism -Elevates the rhetoric of the Cold War- for us or against us, good vs. evil, scare the hell out of the American people
Marshall Plan
1948 -Giving aid to rebuild Europe in order to quell the Soviet Union’s aspirations to control Europe -Victory for global capitalism -Fueling the revitalization of the industrialism of western Europe -If Russia wanted to be part of this, they would have to become a capitalist country, open up all the secrets and become a transparent system
Korean War
June 1950 -First time US is aggressively using military means to stop communism -Demonstrates the line of containment involves Asia, not just western Europe -China is becoming a communist nation, expulsion of Chiang Kai-Shek -Rise of Mao Tse-Tong is a year before Korea -China’s intervention in Korean War- 600,000 troops across the border; given ample warning, Macarthur refused to acknowledge -US refuses to recognize the government of China for about 20 years
Soviet Union tests atomic bomb
1949 -Years before we thought this would happen -Confrontation of two superpowers, both have atomic weapons
NATO formed
Stalin dies
1953 -Chance for something different to happen in Cold War, but not taken advantage of
Geneva Convention on Indochina
1954 -Diem overrun by Viet Minh -French are defeated despite our support of the French to get their support for NATO -Agreement that there will be free elections in 2 years, until then division between North and South -We become the chief bankroller for South Vietnam
Hungarian Revolution
1956 -We do nothing; shows there are limits to what we will do to protect democracy
Russians launch Sputnik
1957 -Changes the way education is presented in the US -We start putting a whole lot more money into scientific education, federal government gets involved in financing education -Sets off the space race
Castro overthrows Batista
1959 -Communists come to power in Cuba -Early on it is thought there could be cooperation, but Castro casts his lot with the communists and we set in motion plans to overthrow Castro -CIA overthrows democratically elected government of Iran in 1950s -CIA overthrows a progressive government in Guatemala because we think it is too leftist -CIA has a series of interventions which are for the most part immediately successful, but eventually haunt us
Bay of Pigs
1961 -Begins with Eisenhower, carried over to the Kennedy administration -Disaster
Cuban Missile Crisis
October 1962 -Most important moment in post-war history -The whole world could have been destroyed- and it was not
Kennedy\'s American University Speech
1963 -Leads to a promise in the reduction of international tension -Leads to the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
1965 -Gave LBJ congressional approval to go into Vietnam, same kind of blanket endorsement as in Iraq -Leads to massive escalation in Vietnam -Under 20,000 American troops to over 150,000 American troops in an 8 month period -During this debate is when George Ball says before you know we’ll have 500,000 troops in Vietnam, and everyone laughs- 4 years later this prophecy comes true
Tet Offensive
1968 The purpose of the operations, which were unprecedented in this conflict in their magnitude and ferocity, was to strike military and civilian command and control centers throughout the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) and to spark a general uprising among the population
Containment and Domino Theory
Fueled most of the events between 1947 and 1968
GI Bill
-Soldiers returning from WWII receive a college education and home -Becomes the knowledge sector of the economy
March on Washington
1941 -Sets the precedent for a new attitude about federal involvement in civil rights 1963 -Martin Luther King Jr.- SCLC -Roy Wilkins- NAACP -Whitney Young, Jr.- Urban League -A. Philip Randolph- Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters -John Lewis- SNCC -James Farmer- the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
Truman\'s Civil Rights Commission
1947 -⬢ Finds a whole set of objectives to be worked on, including desegregation of military (1948 ordered, happens in 1951)
Brown v. Board
1954 Pretty damn important
Montgomery Bus Boycott
1955 -Passive protest that lasted for over a year -Involved entire community
1950-1954 -Panic of domestic anticommunism -Started by Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin
Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
1960 -Created after the sit-ins in Greensboro -Created in Raleigh -Feb. 1, 1960- launching of Student Direct Action Movement -Gives birth to the civil rights struggle in a different way -Involved mostly students, active struggle
Little Rock
1957 -Puts the federal government in the picture as a guarantor of certain civil rights -Even though Eisenhower doesn’t do this because he is actually committed to civil rights
Feminine Mystique
1963 -Written by Betty Friedan -Clarion call for dramatic change in the status of women -\"The problem that has no name\" -Equal Pay Act passed by congress
George Marshall
an American military leader, Secretary of State, and the third Secretary of Defense. Once noted as the \"organizer of victory\" by Winston Churchill for his leadership of the Allied victory in World War II, Marshall supervised the U.S. Army during the war and was the chief military adviser to President Franklin D. Roosevelt. As Secretary of State he gave his name to the Marshall Plan, for which he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1953.
Dean Acheson
was an American statesman and lawyer; as United States Secretary of State in the administration of President Harry S. Truman during 1949-1953, he played a central role in defining American foreign policy during the Cold War. He likewise played a central role in the creation of many important institutions, including Lend Lease, the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank, together with the early organizations that later became the European Union and the World Trade Organization. His most famous decision was convincing the nation to intervene, in June 1950, in the Korean War. Acheson was a prominent defender of State Department employees accused during Senator Joseph McCarthy\'s anti-Communist investigations, incurring the wrath of McCarthy himself. Acheson was instrumental forming the U.S. policy toward Vietnam, persuading Truman to dispatch aid and advisors to French forces in Indochina, though he would later counsel President Lyndon B. Johnson to negotiate for peace with North Vietnam. During the Cuban Missile Crisis, President John F. Kennedy called upon Acheson for advice, bringing him into the executive committee (ExComm), a strategic advisory group.
Ella Baker
-Hired in 1941 as a field secretary for NAACP -First staffperson for SCLC -Founded SNCC
Bob Moses
-Field secretary for SNCC -Instrumental in creation of Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party -Main organizer of Freedom Summer -Left SNCC when Stokely Carmichael started shifting focus to Black Power
Stokely Carmichael
-Leader of SNCC -Disillusioned when Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party was not granted seats they wanted -Started Black Power movement
George Wallace
a United States politician who was elected Governor of Alabama as a Democrat four times (1962, 1970, 1974 and 1982) and ran for U.S. President four times, running as a Democrat in 1964, 1972, and 1976, and as the American Independent Party candidate in 1968. During the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s, he rose to fame as a symbol of bigotry.
Robert Williams
-represents a long tradition of self-defense in the black community; speaks to a continuity in the civil rights struggle -defended two young black boys accused of kissing a white girl in 1958 (kissing case) -was a civil rights leader, author, and the president of the Monroe, North Carolina NAACP chapter in the 1950s and early 1960s. At a time when racial tension was high and official abuses were rampant, Williams was a key figure in promoting both integration and armed Black self-defense in the United States
Earl Warren
-Chief Justice of the Supreme Court for Brown v. Board (appointed by Eisenhower) -Arranged the union that unanimously passed the Brown decision
Thurgood Marshall
-head of the NAACP legal defense fund before becoming supreme court justice (NAACP founded in 1909) -Argued successfully in Brown case
Robert McNamara
-former United States Secretary of Defense -McNamara served as U.S. Secretary of Defense from 1961 to 1968, during the Vietnam War
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
-Prez from 1933-1945 -New Deal legislation (Federal Housing, Social Security, SEC, revitalized economy) -Critical role in reshaping post-WWII world (Yalta conference) -Ran the US during WWII, rallied citizens and troops
Harry S. Truman
-Prez from 1945-1953 -Took over when FDR died -Truman Doctrine -Desegregated military -ruman\'s presidency was also eventful in foreign affairs, with the end of World War II and his decision to use nuclear weapons against Japan, the founding of the United Nations, the Marshall Plan to rebuild Europe, the Truman Doctrine to contain communism, the beginning of the Cold War, the creation of NATO, and the Korean War
During Stalin\'s reign, the Soviet Union played a major role in the defeat of Nazi Germany in the Second World War (1939–1945) (more commonly known in Russia and post-Soviet republics as the Great Patriotic War). Under Stalin\'s leadership, the Soviet Union went on to achieve recognition as one of just two superpowers in the post-war era, a status that lasted for nearly four decades after his death until the dissolution of the Soviet Union
John Kenneth Galbraith
author of the Affluent Society
Anne Moody
At Tougaloo, she became involved with the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. After graduating, Moody became a full-time worker in the Civil Rights Movement, participating in a Woolworth\'s lunchcounter sit-in and protests in Jackson, Mississippi. During Freedom Summer, she worked for CORE in the volatile town of Canton, Mississippi. Her autobiography Coming of Age in Mississippi is acclaimed for its realistic portrayal of life for a young African American before and during the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960\'s.
Malcolm X
-Assassinated in 1965 -American Black Muslim minister and a spokesman for the Nation of Islam -Made MLK look like a moderate
J. Edgar Hoover
-first Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) of the United States -tortured MLK jr. and Kennedys among others
novel Truman Lynn Meridian lives in Mississippi
Ngo Dinh Diem
-First president of South Vietnam -We sabotage this and prevent the election -To perpetuate the division between North and South and to create our own regime in the South, headed by Diem -Diem is Catholic, spent much of his time at a seminary in the US -Was raised largely in France, is arrogant and elitist -Surrounds himself mostly with family and close aids -The US bankrolls his regime -Not prepared for guerilla wars, his force is armed like an American force would be armed -No training or preparation for dealing with insurgency -For 2.5 years, there is no insurgency because Viet Minh are hoping to have a national election -Only after it is evident this election is not going to happen does the Viet Cong develop (civil insurrection against the established regime in South Vietnam) -If we were fans of democracy in Southeast Asia, we would have had the election- but we didn’t -North Vietnamese do not get involved in any of this until 1959
They Marched Into Sunlight
Welch Sewell Soglin Kauffman -Terry de la Mesa Allen, Jr., commander of 2nd Battalion, 28th Infantry Regiment, U.S. 1st Infantry Division, son of Major General Terry de la Mesa Allen; killed in action in Vietnam October 17, 1967 -Lt. Clark Welch -Donald Holleder -Vo Minh Triet -Paul Soglin
Bill Clinton
-Profoundly concerned by the Vietnam War -Notorious womanizer -Chose to go to Georgetown instead of UArkansas -Met Hill at Yale Law School -Attorney General and then Governor of Arkansas -Continuously the comeback kid -Beat Bush Sr. in 1992 and Bob Dole in 1996 -Everything had to be cleared by him, Hill and Al -Healthcare was his project but Whitewater and Monica ruined it -Fantastic economy and relatively calm foreign policy (brought Palestine and Israel together)
Tom Hayden
one of the founders of Students for a Democratic Society
SDS (Students for a Democratic Society)
a student activist movement in the United States that was one of the main iconic representations of the country\'s New Left. The organization developed and expanded rapidly in the mid-1960s before dissolving at its last convention in 1969. SDS was the organizational high point for student radicalism in the United States and has been an important influence on student organizing in the decades since its collapse. Participatory democracy, direct action, radicalism, student power, shoestring budgets, and its organizational structure are all present in varying degrees in current national student activist groups. Though various organizations have been formed in subsequent years as proposed national networks for left-wing student organizing, none has approached the scale of SDS, and most have lasted a few years at best
Phyllis Schlafly
-Opposed feminism and Equal Rights Amendment -Believed ERA would take away women\'s rights -irony in Schlafly\'s role as an advocate for the full-time mother and wife, while being herself a lawyer, editor of a monthly newsletter, regular speaker at anti-liberal rallies, and political activist
-Prez from 1969-1974 -followed a foreign policy marked by détente with the Soviet Union and by the opening of diplomatic relations with the People\'s Republic of China -Nixon successfully negotiated a ceasefire with North Vietnam, effectively ending the longest war in American history -Domestically, his administration faced resistance to the Vietnam War -In the face of likely impeachment by the United States House of Representatives and conviction by the Senate for the Watergate scandal, Nixon resigned -His successor, Gerald Ford, issued a controversial pardon for any federal crimes Nixon may have committed while in office -Nixon did not like to communicate with other people -Secretly bombed Cambodia to escalate Vietnam War even as he was telling Americans it was ending -Tape recorded everything, this was his downfall -Madman theory in Vietnam
-nicknamed \"Ike\", was a General of the Army (five star general) in the United States Army and U.S. politician, -served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961) -During the Second World War, he served as Supreme Commander of the Allied forces in Europe, with responsibility for planning and supervising the successful invasion of France and Germany in 1944-45 -In 1951, he became the first supreme commander of NATO -oversaw the cease-fire of the Korean War, kept up the pressure on the Soviet Union during the Cold War, made nuclear weapons a higher defense priority, launched the Space Race, enlarged the Social Security program, and began the Interstate Highway System
Henry Kissinger
-served as National Security Advisor and later concurrently as Secretary of State in the Richard Nixon administration -Kissinger emerged unscathed from the Watergate scandal and maintained his powerful position when Gerald Ford became President -Negotiated Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty
George McGovern
a former United States Representative, Senator, and Democratic presidential nominee. McGovern lost the 1972 presidential election in a landslide to incumbent Richard Nixon. As a World War II combat veteran, McGovern was noted for his opposition to the Vietnam War
Gerald Ford
-Prez from 1974-1977 after Nixon resigned -Pardoned Nixon *very controversial -Ford becomes president and says “my fellow Americans, our long national nightmare is over” -Ford made Nelson Rockefeller his vice president -Possibly the bravest and most courageous thing Ford could have done for the country -Had to recover from the American embassy debacle -Had to stabilize the American people -3 years of litigation would have destroyed Nixon -Ford was known as very awkward, couldn’t walk and chew gum at the same time -Vetoed more acts in Congress than most presidents do in an entire 8 years in office
Jimmy Carter
-Prez from 1977-1981 -American people want to return to what the country is all about -Carter was a political outsider, not tainted by the Watergate scandal -Overtly moral and religious -Peanut farmer from Georgia -Ongoing problem with OPEC -Huge energy crisis -Carter can never deal with the degree to which Congress is a co-equal part of government
Moral majority/Religious right
Used direct mail and communications to lead the conservative consensus Pat Robertson -PTL Club: Praise The Lord Club Jerry Falwell -Believed you had to be involved in politics -Led the moral majority -Created Liberty College
Ronald Reagan
-Prez from 1981-1989 -Originally an actor -Governor of California -Had no idea what was going on, completely depended on his advisers -Cold War ended when he was in office -Iran-Contra Affair -Interrogated by HUAC -War on Drugs
Newt Gingrich
-served as the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1995 to 1999. In 1995, Time magazine selected him as the Person of the Year for his role in leading the Republican Revolution in the House, ending 40 years of Democratic Party majorities in that body. During his tenure as Speaker he represented the public face of the Republican opposition to Bill Clinton. -Wrote the Contract with America
George H.W. Bush
-Prez 1989-1993 -VP of Reagan -Greatest achievement: Gulf War -Greatest failures: did not anticipate end of Cold War, had no idea how to deal with the remnants of Reagan\'s economy, looked too WASPish to care about social issues
George W. Bush
-Prez from 2000-present (ugh) -Prez for 9/11 -Invaded Afghanistan with the support of the world, invaded Iraq with the support of no one (despite Colin Powell\'s attempts to the contrary) -Cheney and Rumsfeld run everything -economy slows because of huge deficit because of war -Destroyed all global friendships -Pursued unilateral foreign policy instead of the last 50 years of multilateralism
John Foster Dulles
U.S. Secretary of State under President Dwight D. Eisenhower from 1953 to 1959. He was a significant figure in the early Cold War era, advocating an aggressive stance against communism around the world. He advocated support of the French in their war against the Viet Minh in Indochina and famously refused to shake the hand of Zhou Enlai at the Geneva Conference in 1954. He also played a great part in the CIA operations to overthrow the democratic Mossadegh government of Iran in 1953 (Operation Ajax) and the democratic Arbenz government of Guatemala in 1954 (Operation PBSUCCESS). Contents
Kathie Sarachild
-feminist discussed in Personal Politics -Spoke openly about consciousness-raising
Ho Chi Minh
Vietnamese revolutionary and statesman, who later became prime minister (1946–1955) and president (1946–1969) of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam)
Alger Hiss
-Whittaker Chambers, a government informant and former Communist Party member, testified to the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) that Hiss had secretly been a Communist while in federal service. Called before HUAC, Hiss categorically denied the charge -Nixon had him put on trial for perjury and communism to make Nixon look like a strong anticommunist
William F. Buckley
American author and conservative commentator. He founded the political magazine National Review in 1955, hosted 1429 episodes[3] of the television show Firing Line from 1966 until 1999, and was a nationally syndicated newspaper columnist
Friedrich Hayek
-Austrian-British economist and political philosopher known for his defense of classical liberalism and free-market capitalism against socialist and collectivist thought in the mid-20th century -considered to be one of the major forces of change from the dominant interventionist and Keynesian policies of the first part of the 20th century to the more market friendly, less state control and neoliberal policies after the 1980s
Richard Viguerie
-founding father of modern conservative strategy -created direct mail strategy
Mikhail Gorbachev
the last General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the last head of state of the USSR, serving from 1985 until its collapse in 1991
Colin Powell
-Secretary of State (2001-2005), serving under President George W. Bush -As a General in the United States Army, Powell also served as National Security Advisor (1987–1989) and as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (1989–1993), holding the latter position during the Gulf War
Condoleezza Rice
-Bush\'s second secretary of state -National Security Adviser during Bush\'s first term
Vince Foster
Deputy White House Counsel during the first term of President Bill Clinton, and also a law partner and friend of Hillary Rodham Clinton. His death was ruled a suicide by multiple official investigations, but remains a subject of interest among conspiracy theorists
Dick Morris
-Clinton\'s pollster and adviser for a long time until he was revealed to like hookers (Eliot Spitzer style) -shaped Clinton\'s 1996 campaign -recently a critic of the Clintons
Dick Cheney
VP under Bush Jr
Donald Rumsfeld
Secretary of defense under Ford and Bush jr. from 2001-2006
George Tenet
Director of the CIA from 1997-2004
Al Qaeda
international alliance of Sunni Islamic militant organizations founded in 1988[4] by Abdullah Yusuf Azzam (later replaced by Osama Bin Laden) and other veteran \"Afghan Arabs\" after the Soviet War in Afghanistan. Al-Qaeda has attacked civilian and military targets in various countries, the most notable being the September 11, 2001 attacks. These actions were followed by the US government launching a military and intelligence campaign against al-Qaeda called the War on Terror
Great Society
Two main goals of the Great Society social reforms were the elimination of poverty and racial injustice. New major spending programs that addressed education, medical care, urban problems, and transportation were launched during this period. The Great Society in scope and sweep resembled the New Deal domestic agenda of Franklin D. Roosevelt but differed sharply in types of programs enacted. Some Great Society proposals were stalled initiatives from John F. Kennedy\'s New Frontier. Johnson\'s success depended on his persuasive skills, coupled with the Democratic landslide in 1964 that brought in many new liberals. Anti-war Democrats complained that spending on the Vietnam War choked off the Great Society. While some of the programs have been eliminated or have had their funding reduced, many of them, including Medicare, Medicaid, and federal education funding, continue to the present
SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference)
-Founded by MLK jr. Major Campaigns and Projects of the 1960s * 3.1 Citizenship Schools * 3.2 Albany Movement * 3.3 Birmingham campaign * 3.4 March on Washington * 3.5 St. Augustine Protests * 3.6 Selma Voting Rights Campaign and March to Montgomery * 3.7 Grenada Freedom Movement * 3.8 Chicago Freedom Movement * 3.9 Poor People\'s Campaign
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party
an American political party created in the state of Mississippi in 1964, during the civil rights movement. It was organized by black and white Mississippians, with assistance from the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and Council of Federated Organizations (COFO), to challenge the legitimacy of the white-only regular Democratic Party
NOW (National Organization for Women)
-the largest American feminist organization. NOW was founded in 1966 and has a membership of 500,000 contributing members and 550 chapters in all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia -founded on June 30, 1966 in Washington, D.C., by 28 women and men attending the Third National Conference of the Commission on the Status of Women, the successor to the Presidential Commission on the Status of Women. It had been three years since the Commission reported findings of women being discriminated against. However, the 1966 Conference delegates were prohibited by the administration\'s rules for the conference from even passing resolutions recommending that the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforce its legal mandate to end sex discrimination -Betty Friedan was first president
New Right
the New Right refers to a conservative political movement that coalesced through grassroots organizing in the years preceding the 1964 presidential campaign of Barry Goldwater. The Goldwater campaign, though failing to unseat incumbent President Lyndon B. Johnson, galvanized the formation of a new political movement. In elite think-tanks and local community organizations alike, new policies, marketing strategies, and electoral strategies were crafted over the succeeding decades. The New Right succeeded in building a policy approach and electoral apparatus that propelled Ronald Reagan into the White House in the 1980 presidential election. The American New Right is distinct from and opposed to the more moderate tradition of the so-called Rockefeller Republicans. The New Right also differs from the Old Right on issues concerning foreign policy with the New Right being opposed to the non-interventionism of the Old Right. Though mostly ignored by scholars until the late 1980s, the formation of the New Right is now one of the fastest-growing areas of historical research. New Right activists generally denounced abortion, pornography, same-sex marriage, feminism, drug legalization, and affirmative action
New Left
-In the United States, the \"New Left\" was the name loosely associated with liberal, sometimes radical, political movements that took place during the 1960s, primarily among college students. The origin of the movement is largely based on the original progressive movement. -The U.S. New Left both influenced and drew inspiration from black radicalism, particularly the Black Power movement and the more explicitly left-wing Black Panther Party. The Panthers in turn influenced other similar militant groups, like the Young Lords, the Brown Berets and the American Indian Movement.
Cold War
was the period of conflict, tension and competition between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies from the mid-1940s until the early 1990s. Throughout the period, the rivalry between the two superpowers was played out in multiple arenas: military coalitions; ideology, psychology, and espionage; sports; military, industrial, and technological developments, including the space race; costly defence spending; a massive conventional and nuclear arms race; and many proxy wars.
Watergate Scandal
a general term for a series of political scandals during the presidency of Richard Nixon, that began with five men being arrested after breaking and entering into the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate hotel complex in Washington, D.C. on June 17, 1972. The scandal reached to the top levels of American government, and the attempted cover-up of the break-in ultimately led to Nixon\'s dramatic resignation on August 9, 1974.
Star Wars/Strategic Defense Initiative
Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was a proposal by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. The initiative focused on strategic defense rather than the prior strategic offense doctrine of mutual assured destruction (MAD).
Iran-Contra Affair
The Iran-Contra affair was a political scandal which was revealed in 1986 as a result of earlier events during the Reagan administration. It began as an operation to increase U.S.-Iranian relations, wherein Israel would ship weapons to a moderate, politically influential group of Iranians opposed to the Ayatollah Khomeni; the U.S. would reimburse Israel with those weapons and receive payment from Israel. The moderate Iranians agreed to do everything in their power to achieve the release of six U.S. hostages, who were being held by the terrorist group Hezbollah. The plan eventually deteriorated into an arms-for-hostages scheme, in which members of the executive branch sold weapons to Iran in exchange for the release of the American hostages, without the authorization of President Ronald Reagan. Large modifications to the plan were conjured by Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North of the National Security Agency in late 1985; in North\'s plan, a portion of the proceeds from the weapon sales were diverted to fund anti-Sandinista and anti-communist rebels, or Contras, in Nicaragua.[1] President Ronald Reagan did not authorize this plan, nor was he aware that the funds were being sent to the Contras.[2][3]
Gulf War
(2 August 1990 – 28 February 1991)[8][9] was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force from 34 nations[10] authorized by the United Nations (UN) and led primarily by the United States in order to return Kuwait to the control of the Emir of Kuwait. The conflict developed in the context of the Iran-Iraq War and in 1990 Iraq accused Kuwait of stealing Iraq\'s oil through slant drilling.[11]. The invasion of Kuwait by Iraqi troops was met with immediate economic sanctions against Iraq by some members of the UN Security Council. The expulsion of Iraqi troops from Kuwait began in January 1991 and was a decisive victory for the coalition forces, which took over Kuwait and entered Iraqi territory. Aerial and ground combat was confined to Iraq, Kuwait, and bordering areas of Saudi Arabia. Iraq also launched missiles against targets in Saudi Arabia and Israel in retaliation for their support of the invading forces in Kuwait.
James Baker
Chief of Staff in President Ronald Reagan\'s first administration, Secretary of the Treasury from 1985 to 1988 in the second Reagan administration, and Secretary of State in the administration of President George H. W. Bush
Vietnam War
1959 to April 30, 1975. The war was fought between the communist Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) and its communist allies and the US-supported Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam). It concluded with the defeat and dissolution of South Vietnam. For the United States, the war ended in the withdrawal of American troops and the failure of its foreign policy in Vietnam
Summer of Love
1967- San Francisco
Freedom Summer
(also known as the Mississippi Summer Project) was a campaign in the United States launched in June 1964 to attempt to register to vote as many African American voters as possible in Mississippi, which up to that time had almost totally excluded black voters. The project was organized by the Council of Federated Organizations (COFO) which was an umbrella of four established civil rights organizations: the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), with SNCC playing the lead role. Over 1,000, mostly young, people volunteered, most of them northern whites, many of them Jewish, interested in helping out the civil rights cause.
Port Huron Statement
the manifesto of the American student activist movement Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), written primarily by Tom Hayden, then the Field Secretary of SDS, and completed on June 15, 1962 at an SDS convention in Port Huron, Michigan. “ We are people of this generation, bred in at least modest comfort, housed now in universities, looking uncomfortably to the world we inherit... ”
Watts Riots
The riots began on August 11, 1965, in Watts, a suburb of Los Angeles, when Lee Minikus, a California Highway Patrol motorcycle officer, pulled over Marquette Frye, who Minikus believed was intoxicated because of his observed erratic driving. Frye failed to pass sobriety tests; including walking in a straight line and touching his nose, and was arrested soon after. Minikus refused to let Frye’s brother, Ronald, drive the car home, and radioed for it to be impounded. As events escalated, a crowd of onlookers steadily grew from dozens to hundreds.[1] The mob became violent, throwing rocks and other objects while shouting at the police officers. A struggle ensued shortly resulting in the arrest of Frye, Ronald, and their mother.
Rodney King Uprising (LA Riots of 1992)
sparked on April 29, 1992 when a jury acquitted four police officers accused in the videotaped beating of black motorist Rodney King after following a high-speed pursuit. Thousands of people in the Los Angeles area commenced to a riot over the six days following the verdict. Widespread looting, assault, arson and the occasional murder occurred, many gang-motivated or perpetrated. In all, 53 people died during the riots.
Equal Rights Amendment
a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution intended to guarantee equal rights under the law for Americans regardless of sex. The final deadline for approving the ERA passed in either 1979 or 1982—depending upon one\'s view of a controversial extension of the ratification time constraint. In the intervening years, public discussion on the ERA has been greatly reduced, though the proposal has been reintroduced in every Congress since 1982
Roe V. Wade
(1973) is a United States Supreme Court case that resulted in a landmark decision regarding abortion.[1] According to the Roe decision, most laws against abortion in the United States violated a constitutional right to privacy under the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. The decision overturned all state and federal laws outlawing or restricting abortion that were inconsistent with its holdings. Roe v. Wade is one of the most controversial and politically significant cases in U.S. Supreme Court history. Its lesser-known companion case, Doe v. Bolton, was decided at the same time.
Swann V. Mecklenberg
(1971) was an important United States Supreme Court case dealing with the busing of students to promote integration in public schools. After a first trial going to the Board of Education, the Court held that busing was an appropriate remedy for the problem of racial imbalance among schools, even where the imbalance resulted from the selection of students based on geographic proximity to the school rather than from deliberate assignment based on race. This was done to ensure the schools would be \"properly\" integrated and that all students would receive equal educational opportunities regardless of their race.
Important ideas in the course
Cold War Horizontal vs. Vertical Issues Multilateralism vs. Unilateralism Liberal Consensus New Right New Left Middle America Revolt Women\'s Movement Black Power Civil Rights Imperial Presidency War in Iraq
Presidents in Chronological Order
FDR Truman Eisenhower JFK LBJ Nixon Ford Carter Reagan Bush Sr. Clinton Bush Jr.
Casey Hayden and Mary King
very important feminists who were involved in SNCC

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