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American History Part 1


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What was the putting out system?
ex: clothing

You take each step and pay someone to do in their own house. (cotton to spin, thread to weave, cloth to cut, ect..)
What were the changes that occurred during the Industrial Revolution?
Wind, Water, Human, and Animal powered machines were replaced by Steam, Gas, Electric, and Nuclear powered machines
What is History?
The memory of things said and done
What is Urbanization?
The growth of cities
Who invented the first steam powered machine, what was it, and what was it used for?
James Watt

The water pump

Mostly for mining
What were some changes in living conditions?

Spread of Disease



Price of land
What did the factory system replace?
The putting out system
What was taking place during progressivism?
The Industrial Revolution
What is a factory?
A building that contains both machines and workers
What were the 8 changes in working conditions?
Couldn't set own hours

They had to work in a factory

Hours: 16 hrs/day, 6 days/week, 96 hrs/week

Temperatures: average- 90 degrees +

No minimum wage

No vacation (until 1920's)

No unemployment compensation

No safety regulations
What did the factory system help?
Production and the textile industry, ect...
The term "industrial revolution" was created by whom, what was his book called, and what year was the term created?
Arnold Toynbee

The Industrial Revolution

What was a muckraker?
A journalist
Who was the main muckraker?
Lincoln Steffens
What were some changes in transportation?
The Steam Locomotive

The Steam Boat
Why were the changes in transportation so great?
You could haul more

It was quicker

It was cheaper
Who invented the steam boat and what was it called?
Robert Fulton

The Clermont
What is progressivism?
A belief that:

1) recognized that there are problems in America in the early 1900's

2) things could get better

3) action is necessary to make things better
Who invented the steam locomotive?
Richard Trevithick
What magazine did Lincoln Steffens write for?
Who wre mainly the Social Gospel Reformers?
What were Settlement House's made for?
To help immirgrants adjust to American Society

A school for adults to teach language and customs
What was Lincoln Steffens book called?
The Shame of the Cities
What were the reasons people thought it was wrong for women to vote?
sphere's of influence- women=the home, men=outside the home

women are "innocent" to politics
Who started the Salvation Army, when and where was it started?
William Booth


What did Lincoln Steffens do and what did he say?
Went from city to city studying politics.

He said that politics as a whole is corrupt.
Who was in charge of the NAWSA?
Anna Shaw

Carrie Catt
Who was in charge of the Hull House?
Jane Addams
What were the reasons people thought is was right for women to vote?

Women could "clean up" politics
Who was the author of the most popular book in the late 1800's early 1900's(besides the bible) and what was the book called?
Charles Sheldon

What Would Jesus Do? In His Steps
What did Sheldon's book inspire people to do?
Think of something other than themselves
What amendment gave women the right to vote and what year was it passed?
19th Amendment

What was the organization to help women get the right to vote?
The National Woman Sufferage Association
What was the Women's Sufferage Movement suppose to do?
Give women the right to vote
Who created the thoery of communism?
Karl Marx
What is capitolism?
The system of using money to make money
What books did Karl Marx write?
The Communist Manifesto

Das Kapital
Marx put everyone into two different groups. What were they and what did they represent?
1) Proletariat - working class

2) Borgeoisie - owners
Marx argued that all history is what?
A series of struggles between the proletariat and the borgeoisie.
What did Marx say about the capitalism workers?
They would be over worked and under paid.
Marx said that capitalism is wrong for two reasons. What are they?
1) People that work the most get paid the least.

2) People that work the least get paid the most.
What did Marx say would happen as time goes on?
There will be more and more Proletariat, and less and less Borgeoisie.
Why did he say that?
1) Bigger businesses will drive out smaller businesses out of business

2) Bigger businesses will buy out smaller businesses
What did Marx say would eventually happen to the proetariat?
There will be a growing sense of frusteration among them.

Eventually there will be a revolution.
What will people try to gain control over according to Marx?
1) businesses

2) government
Communism is a society without three things. What are they?
1) Individual ownership of property

2) Class distinctions

3) Government
What were Socialists?
People who want business to be owned or controled by the government.
What did socialists believe they needed to do?
1) Pass laws

2) Have a revolution
What did th etemperance movement try to do?
Ban alcohol
What did they believe it would do?
It would be a panacea for America
What is a panacea?
A cure-all.
What amendment banned alcohol?
The 18th Amendment in 1918
What did people think the could get rid of by banning alcohol?


Homeless People
What was the problem with the temperance movement?
People didn't stop drinking (the first mofia was formed).
What ammendment repealed the 18th?
The 21st Ammendment in 1933
What was the period called when the Temperance movement was in action?
Prohibition - 1918-1933
What did the political reformers do?
1) Secret Ballot

2) Recall Elections

3) Primary Elections
Who were the candidates for the 1912 election and what were their ranks at the time?
William Taft - current president

Teddy Roosevelt - former president

Woodrow Wilson - Governor of New Jersey
What party did Roosevelt form after Taft came out on top of the primarys?
The Progressive (Bull Moose) Party
Why did Wilson win?
The republicans split their vote
What wasn't there until Wilson took office?
Income Tax
What was the law called that Wilson wanted passed and what was it supposed to do?
Underwood Simmons Tariff

Lower taxes on imported goods
What is a tariff?
Tax on imported goods
Why did Wilson want to lower the income tax?
1) So that competition would rise in the USA, and quality would go up as well

2) To help the working class
What was the problem with the UST?
Government wasn't making as much money
What did wilson use to make more money for the government?
Income Tax
What Ammendment allowed Income Tax?
The 16th Ammendment in 1913
When did World War 1 break out?
In 1914
What happened on June 28, 1914?
Archduke Francis Ferdinand was assasinated.
Who was Francis Ferdinand?
The heir of the throne to Austria-Hungary
Who was the emperor of Austria-Hungary in 1914?
Francis Ferdinand's uncle, Francis Joseph
Who wanted control of Bosnia?
How did Austria-Hungary respond to the assasnation?
1) They consulted Germany about starting a war with Serbia

2) 1 month after, they declared war on Serbia
How did Germany respond to Austria-Hungary?
They told them they would help in any way they could. They gave them a "blank check".
What did Serbia do after they found out about Austria-Hungary and Germany?
They turned to Russia and asked them for help.
What did Russia say and do?
1) They said yes

2) They started mobilizing troops.
After Germany told Russia to "stay out of it", what did Russia do?
Turned to their ally, France.
What did France say and do?
1) Said yes

2) Started mobilizing
When did Germany declare war on Russia? France?
Russia - August 1, 1914

France - August 3, 1914
What did Germany do to Belgium?
1) Asked them if they could move their troops through to France.

*when Belgium said no*

2) Attacked and defeated Belgium in a matter of a few hours.
Why did Great Britian join the war?
Germany didn't listen to them about staying out of Belgium.
What was the plan called to overtake France and what was it?
1) The Schieffen Plan

2) Knock France out of the war immediately

3) Take on Russia
What did the USA do right away and what did it mean?
1) President Wilson declared the US Neutrality Policy

2) Isolationism
Who said (or at least was going to say) that America should persue isolationism and when was he supposed to say it?
George Washington in his Farewell Address
Why was is going to be difficult for the US to stay out of the war?
1) People chose sides

2) Respect for Great Britain

3) Economic ties that we had with the Allies

4) Germany used submarine warfare
What boat did Germany sink and what kind of boat was it?
The Lusitania

A passenger ship
What were the three groups of people and what did they each say?
1) Pacifists - to stay out

2) Interventionists - US to go to war

3) People who believed in preparedness - prapare for war, but for now stay out
Who were the candidates of the election of 1916?
Republican - Charles Even Hughes (interventionalists)

Democrat - Woodrow Wilson (preparednessist)
What was Wilson's slogan?
"He kept us out of war!"
How long was Wilson in office before he asked to declare war?
1 month
When did Wilson ask to declare war?
April 1917
What things lead up to the declaration of the war?
1) Zimmerman Telegram was intercepted

2) Unrestricted Submarine Warfare

3)Economic ties with the Allies
What was the Zimmerman Telegram?
A telegram from Germany to México that told them to attack the US if we join the war.
What was the telegram called that got intercepted?
The Zimmerman Telegram
What did Germany say about submarine warfare?
"Any ship that is going to any ally country (Great Britain) will be sunk."
In 1917, Europe was divided by two trenches. Where were they?
Western Europe

Eastern Europe
What did the economic ties have to do with anything?
The US sold millions of $$ worth of supplies to the allies, and if they lost, they would loose millions of dollars.
When did congress declare war on Germany and Austria-Hungary?
April 6, 1917
How did the government convince the US citizens that it was good to go to war?
1) Idealistic Goals

2) Set up Social Groups

3) Passed Laws

4) Propoganda (advertizement)
What were the idealistic goals used to convince the people about the war?
a) It was the war to end all wars

b) It would make the world safe for democracy

c) There would be peace without victory (spoils)
What were the Social Groups?
a) Boy spies of America

b) Girl spies of America

(boy and girls ages 10-16)
What were the laws passed?
a) Sedition Act

b) Espionage Act
What was the Sedition act?
Made it illegal to critize the government
What was the Espionage Act?
Made it illegal to MAIL any seditious material.
How did the government find out about people mailing anything seditious?
People were "hired" to go through the mail.
Who did the government tell specifically to go through the mail?
Postmaster General Albert Sydney
Who was the leader of the commitee of Public Information?
George Creel
What was the cost of the war for the US?
$32 billion

32 times the entire Federal Budget
How did the government pay for the war?
1) They raised taxes.

2) They took loans out from the people.
What were the loans called that the government used to pay for the war?
War bonds
Who was the leader that set up the War Industries Board?
Bernard Baruch
What was the organization called that made sure the soldiers had enough supplies?
The War Industries Board
Who did the WIB get to run the factories that would supply the supplies?
Factory owners would volunteer
What things were the factory owners told to do when they would volunteer?
-what goods to make

-how many to make

-the price at which to sell it
Why would factory owners volunteer? What was their motive?
The would get paid sometimes up to 25% more
What was the great migration?
Tens of thousands of blacks moving from the South to the North
Why were blacks moving from the South to the North?
Push/Pull effect
Why were the blacks feeling pushed from the South?
-lack of jobs

Why were the blacks feeling pulled to the North?
-good jobs
Why were women a factor in the war economy?
-They entered the work force because most of the men were off to war.
What was the Selective Service Act?
The draft
What was the boom time of the war?
A good economy
Germany was fighting a what?
2 front war
Where were the two fronts?
Western Europe - Stalemate outside of Paris

Eastern Europe - Russia vs. Germany
What was going on with Russia in 1917?
What happened in November os 1917?
The Bolshevik Revolution
Who were the Bolsheviks?
Who was the Bolshevik leader?
Vladimir Lenin
What were the Bolsheviks 3 basic goals?


When did Russia pull out of the war?
early 1918
What was the treaty with Germany called with Russia when they pulled out of the war?
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
What was the "great race"?
-Germany can now send all of it's troops to Eastern Europe

-The US is going to send it's troops to Eastern Europe

-It was a matter of who will get there first
Who was the leader of Germany when the Archduke was assasinated?
Kaiser Wilhelm II
What was Germany's last offensive called?
The Second Battle of the Marne
When did the last battle take place?
Summer 1918
The allies were lead by a French Leader. What was his name?
General Ferdinand Foch
When was WWI ended?
November 11, 1918 at 11:00 am

(Veterans Day)
Who were the Big Three?
1) USA - Woodrow Wilson

2) Great Britain - Prime Minister David Lloyd George

3) France - Prime Minister George Clemeneau
What was Wilson's Peace Settlement?
14 points-

a) self-determination (each group of people should govern itself)

b) League of Nations

c) No secret treaties
What did David Lloyd George want?
What did George Clemenceau want?
a) reparations

b) eliminate Germany's military

c) create bufferzone
What was the bufferzone and what was it's name going to be?
-A seperate country


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