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History exam vocab (pps)


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Cultural diffusion
the spreading of culture from one society to another
a nonotheistic religion originating with the Israelites, tracing its orgigins to Abraham, and having its spiritual and ethical principles embodied chiefly in the Hebrew Scriptures and the Talmud
King of Persia; his armies invaded Greece but were eventually defeated by the Greeks
Nebuchadnezzar II
Chaldean king of Babylon from 605 to 562 BCE; rebuilt Bybylon into a beautiful city noted for its fames Hanging Gardens
King f Babylonia; he was a brilliant military leader who brought all of Mesopotamia into the Babylonian Empire. he is known for his uniform code of 282 laws, the earliest known set of written laws
Sumerian Writing
traditional economy
an economic system in which economic decisions are make based on customs, beliefs, religion, and habits
skilled craftspeople who make goods, such as pottery or baskets, by hand
governors of ancient Persia
a large landmass that is part of a continent but is considered an independent entity either geographically or politically
In Hinduism, the totality of a person's good and bad deeds, and the way in which they affect that individual's fate in the afterlife
Division of labor
when certain people do a specific task or type of work
the belief that the world is controlled by the two opposing forces, good and evil
the belief that all things in nature have spirits
objects that people in the past made or used, over 50 years old, such as coins, pottery, and tools
originator of jewish line of descent:::held deep devotion to and a great trust in the will of god
a Sumerian temple made of sun-dried brick that was dedicated to the chief goddess of a particular city state
the belief in many gods
nomads who kept herds of livestock on which they depended for most of their food
Cyrus the Great
King of Persia and founder of the Persian Empire; he defeated the Median army and united the Persians and Medians under his rule
a series of physical and mental exersises that teaches people how to focus
Religious teacher and prophet of ancient Persia; he founded a religion known as Zoroastrianism based on the idea that people have free will and can act as they choose
a binding agreement
Louis Leakey
British archaeologist and anthropologist if east africa; he was convinced that africa was the best place to search for human orgins and make many important archaeological discoveries
In Hinduism, the religious and moral duties of an individual
seasonal winds in India
a group an semi-nomadic people who migrated from southern Russia to the Indian Subcontinent around 1700 BCE
a family of rulers whose right to rule is hereditary
people who move from place to place in search of food and water
Darius I
King of Persia from 522 to 486 BCE; he reorganized and strengthened the Persian Empire by reforming the army and the government
social classes in the ancient Indian class System (Varnas)
Sacred writings of the Indo-Aryans
arid grasslands
Neolithic Revolution
a period in human history marked by the intoduction of agriculture and a shift from food gathering to food production
the belief in one god
In Hinduism, the escape form the cycle of rebirth
Mary Leaky
British archaeologist; along w/ her husband, Louis, she make great discoveries of early hominids in East Africa
paleolithic era
also known as the old stone age; a prehistoric period that lasted from about 2.5 million years ago to about 8,500 BC
Donald Johanson
American anthropologist; he discovered a partial Australopithicine skeleton in Ethiopia, which he named Lucy
a fortress
a complex, organized society that has advanced cities, a government, religion, record keeping and writing, job specialization, social classes, and arts and architecture
King of Akkad in Mesopotamia; considered the founder of Mesopotamia and conquered many cities along the middle Euphrates to northern Syria He established trade routes with the Indus Valley, the coast of the Orman islands, and the shores of the Persian Gulf
an early human like creature that is believed to be the ancestor of humans
Neolithic Era
the New Stone Age; the time period after the Paleolithic Era, marked by the use of tools
Hebrew Prophet, led the Exodus, during which he received the 10 commandments
a group's knowledge, beliefs, values, and customs
Leaders of ancient cities in India
The Escape of the Hebrews from Egypt, led by Moses
the largest religion in India; Hindus believe that everything in the world is a power of Brahman, a single great universal being; they also believe in reincarnation and strive to break free from the cycle of rebirth
the four social classes in Vedic society
The sacred Jewish text, five books
taming animals adapting crops for human use
Bronze Age
the period after the stone age, when people began to make items out of bronze
Excess, usually food
the dispersal of the Jewa from their homeland in Palestine during the 2,600 years that followd the destruction of the Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem in 586 BCE by the Chaldeans
huge stones used for burial or religious purposes
an ancestral "father" of Judaism
City state
a political unit that includes a town or a city and the surrounding land controlled by it
hunter gatherers
people who hunt animals and gather wild plants to provide for their needs

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