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eye, ans, cortex


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bones of the orbit
The gap bt the margins of the two palpebrae is the
palpebral fissure
main muscles of the eyelids
m. orbicularis oculi
m. levator palpebrae superioris
The palpebrae are afforded a certain amount of rigidity by the presence of a layer of dense fibrous connective tissue within them, the ______ ______
tarsal plate
Which of the animals listed below have cilia on the palpebra superior and inferior; which have only superior cilia; and which have no cilia on the eyelids
dogs, cats, horses, cattle, pigs, and sheep.
Herbivors: have both
Dogs: only superior
The _______ glands of the eye produce the oil layer of the tear film
The __________ is the mucous membrane that lines the inside of the eyelids and the surface of the eyeball(excluding the clear cornea).
The conjunctiva on the deep side of the palpebrae is identified as __________ _________. Where it approaches the edge of the orbit, the conjunctiva reflects back onto the surface of the eyeball and is called __________ _______. The angle made by this ref
palpebral conjunctiva
bulbar conjunctiva
conjunctival fornix
conjunctival sac
nictitating membrane
third eyelid
Third eyelid is given rigidity by a ________ _______, and it functions to smooth the _________ ________ _______, to produce a portion of the _________ ________ _______, and to protect the ________
T-shaped cartilage
precorneal tear film
precorneal tear film
"cherry eye"
prolapse of the gland of the third eyelid
The lacrimal gland receives sensory innervation from the _______ nerve a branch of the _________ nerve. and its parasympathetic motor innervation originates in the ________ nerve a branch of the __________ nerve. Parasympathetic preganglionic neurons syn
major petrosal
layers of the precorneal tear film
outer oil layer: tarsal glands
Aqueous layer: lacrimal and gland of the third eyelid
mucoid layer:conjuctiva's goblet cells
The ________ ________ are linear accumulations of mucus normally found in the superior and inferior fornices
mucous threads
As the precorneal tear film is produced, it accumulates in the inferior conjunctival fornix where it forms the _________ ______
lacrimal lake
drooping of the upper eyelid
The superior palpebral levator muscle is innervated by the ________ nerve
forward displacement of the eye
sinking of the eye
adipose tissue behind the eyeball
retrobulbar fat
3 tunics of the eyeball
fibrous tunic
vascular tunic
nervous tunic
acellular gel in the posterior globe
vitreous body
The sclera meets the clear cornea at a transitional region called the _________
where optic nerve leaves the globe
area cribrosa
highly vascular outer layer of the sclera
corneal transparency is a function of what 5 things
1.lack of vascular elements and cells
2.lack of pigment
3.relative dehydration of the tissue
4.smooth optical surface
5. highly regular laminar pattern of collagen fibers that reduces light scatter
5 layers of the cornea
1.precorneal tear film
2.anterior epithelium and its basement membrane
4.Descemet's membrane
In corneal injuries that penetrate the full thickness of the stroma, Descemet's membrane may bulge through the defect and form a blister in the injury site. This ___________ is a sign of a cornea that is about to rupture and constitutes an ocular emergen
Sources of oxygen and nutrients for the cornea
1.fluid within the anterior chamber
2.precorneal tear film
3. capillaries at the limbus
The vascular tunic or _______ is composed of 3 parts the _______, _________, and ________
ciliary body
The reflective portion of the choroid which bounces photons back onto the retina
The tapetum is located on the _______ portion of the posterior globe.
The ___________ is the anterior continuation of the uvea and lies immediately posterior to the iris. It gives rise to fingerlike _________ to which the lens is attached by __________.
ciliary body
ciliary processes
suspensory ligaments
The process of focusing on nearer objects is called
What produces aqueous humor?
capillaries of the ciliary body

parts of eye

parts of eye
production of aqueous humor requires the enzyme __________
carbonic anhydrase
The _____ is the most anterior portion of the uvea and the only part of the vascular tunic normally visible in the living animal.
constiction of the pupil
innervation pathway to constrict the pupil
oculomotor nucleus > oculomotor n. > ciliary ganglion > short ciliary nn.> m. constrictor pupillae
innervation pathway to dilate the pupil
preganglionic in lateral column of spinal cord segments T1-2/3 > vagosympathetic trunk > cranial cervical ganglion > sympathetic post ganglion fibers > m. dilator pupillae
dilation of the pupil
In herbivors (esp horses) the pigmented epithelium of the posterior surface of the iris together with tissue of the iridial stroma forms nodular masses along the margin of the pupil called
corpora nigra
when pupillary membrane fails to atrophy during development
persistent pupillary membranes
The region of the anterior chamber where the iris and the sclera approach one another is bridged by a series of fine fibers collectively known as _______________. Deep to these ligaments is the _____________, a labyrinthine set of passages
pectinate ligaments
trabecular meshwork
increased intraocular pressure
The deepest layer of the eyeball is the nervous tunic or ______
The retina is divided into 3 parts the __________________ is a simple pigmented epithelium attached to the posterior surface of the iris. The retina then reflects over the surface of the ciliary body, being called here _______________. Finally the light
pars iridca retina
pars ciliaris retina
pars optica retinae
vision in dim light
layers of the retina
1.pigment epithelium
2.photoreceptor layer
3.bipolar cells
4.ganglion cell layer
5. nerve fiber layer
area that receives light from the center of the visual field
area centralis
Components of the fundus
tapetum, the nontapetal area, optic disk, and retinal vasculature
Carnivores and ruminants exhibit a ___________ retinal vascular pattern while horses have __________ vascular pattern
stars of winslow
red or darik dots repersenting end on capillaries in the equine tapetal region
3 routes of venous return from the globe
1.angular vein
2.ophthalmic plexus
3.ventral external ophthalmic vein
lenticular sclerosis
As the animal ages more lens fibers are added to the cortex, compressing the fibers at the lens' center. these old cells become hardened and after middle age begin to lose their transparency
transparent media that serve to refract and focus light on retina
dioptric media:
2.aqueous humor
4.vitreous body

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