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AP2, Chap 21, Blood Vessels & Circulation


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The walls of arteries and veins contain three distinct layers; name them
the tunica intima,
tunica media,
and tunica externa
The walls of arteries are ___ than those of veins.
The ___ ___ of an artery contains more smooth muscle and elastic fibers than does that of a vein.
tunica media
___ are the only blood vessels whose walls permit exchange between the blood and the surrounding fluids.
Most of the body's blood supply to various regions is supplied by ___ ___.
continuous capillaries
In a continuous capillary, the ___ is a complete lining.
Capillaries that contain "windows," or pores, that span the endothelial lining are called ...
Fenestrated Capillaries (Have Incomplete lining)
The entrance to each capillary is guarded by a band of smooth muscle called a ___ ___.
precapillary sphincter
How does the precapillary sphincter's contraction of the smooth muscle cells effect a vessel
It reduces the flow of blood. It constricts and narrows the diameter of the capillary entrance.
What regulates the flow of blood into the capillaries?
precapillary sphincter
Review: Capillary Bed blood flow:
1-collateral arteries, 2-arteriole, 3-metarteriole, 4-arteriovenous anastomosis, 5-capillaries, 6-small veinule, 7-vein
Do valves in the venous circulatory system allow blood flow in both directions?
As blood travels from a larger diameter vessel into a smaller diameter vessel, resistance will ___.

Example: Aorta to a capillary
Review: Order of vessels from the heart(1 through 7)
1-elastic arteries, 2-muscular arteries, 3-arterioles, 4-capillaries, 5-venules, 6-veins, vena cava
A rhythmic pressure oscillation that accompanies each heartbeat
Term for the difference between systolic and diastolic pressures
Pulse pressure
Hormone released in response to a fall in blood pressure
Angiotensin II
In response to a drop in BP; renin converts ___, a plasma protein produced by the LIVER, to ____.
angiotensin I
In response to a drop in BP;____ modifies angiotensin I to angiotensin II.
angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)
Where does ACE modify angiotensin I to angiotensin II (an active hormone with diverse effects)?
In the capillaries of the lungs
Light exercise results in:
Extensive vaso (dilation or constriction) &
(increased or decreased) venous return?
an increased breathing rate pulls blood into the vena cava via the ___ ___
respiratory pump
What squeezes blood along the peripheral veins
skeletal muscle contractions
the ___ ___ gives rise to the left and right pulmonary arteries
pulmonary trunk
These large arteries enter the lungs before branching repeatedly, giving rise to smaller and smaller arteries.
pulmonary arteries
These four veins, two from each lung, empty into the left atrium, completing the pulmonary circuit.
Pulmonary veins
What are the three major branches that arise before a subclavian artery leaves the thoracic cavity:
1- internal thoracic artery
2- vertebral artery
3- the thyrocervical trunk
What branches from the subclavian artery to provide blood to muscles and other tissues of the neck, shoulder, and upper back?
The thyrocervical trunk
What branches from the subclavian artery to provide blood to the brain and spinal cord
The vertebral artery
What subclavian artery supplys the pericardium and anterior wall of the chest
The internal thoracic artery
Branches of the aortic arch includes the ___ ___ artery (only one not in the right side)
left subclavian
After leaving the thoracic cavity & crossing the first rib, the subclavian artery is called the ___ artery
Distally, the axillary artery becomes the ___ artery, which supplies blood to the rest of the upper limb.
What Artery supplies deep structures on the posterior aspect of the arm?
The deep brachial artery
What artery supplies the area around the elbow?
The ulnar collateral arteries
What artery gives rise to the radial & ulnar arteries?
The brachial artery
What artery follows the radius?
The radial artery
What artery follows the ulna to the wrist?
The ulnar artery
Review: Arterial division of upper limb
axillary, brachial, deep brachial, radial, ulnar
The vertebral arteries
enter the cranium at the ___ ___.
foramen magnum
Vertebral arteries fuse along the ventral surface of the ___ ___ to form the basilar artery
medulla oblongata
What two arteries form the cerebral arterial circle, or circle of Willis?
internal carotid arteries &
the basilar artery
What vessels supply the infundibulum of the pituitary gland?
cerebral arterial circle, or circle of Willis
What divides the aorta into a superior thoracic aorta and an inferior abdominal aorta?
The diaphragm
At what level does the abdominal aorta split into two major arteries?
vertebra L4
The Abdominal Aorta
splits into two major arteries, the left and right ___ ___ arteries
common iliac
Atreries that supply deep pelvic structures and the lower limbs.
left and right common iliac arteries
Each external iliac artery crosses the surface of an ___ muscle and penetrates the abdominal wall.
Each external iliac artery penetrates the abdomin midway between the ____ & the ___ ___on that side.
anterior superior iliac spine & pubic symphysis
The ___ ___ ___emerges on the anterior, medial surface of the thigh as the femoral artery.
external iliac artery
What artery arises roughly 5 cm distal to the emergence of the femoral artery.
deep femoral
Review: Lower Limb Arteries
common iliac,int.iliac,ext. iliac,(pub.sym)femoral,deep femoral,popliteal,post/ant.. tibial,fibular(peroneal)
Posterior to the knee joint, the femoral artery becomes the ___ artery
popliteal (pop-LIT-e-al)
the popliteal artery branches to form the ___ & ___ arteries
posterior and anterior tibial
What gives rise to the fibular artery, or peroneal artery?
The posterior tibial artery
What is another name for the peroneal artery?
Receives blood from the tissues and organs of the head, neck, chest, shoulders, and upper limbs.
The Superior Vena Cava
The superficial cerebral veins and small veins of the brain stem empty into a network of ___ ___
dural sinuses.
The superficial arch empties into the ___ ___ & ___
cephalic vein; the median antebrachial vein; and the basilic vein
Which vein ascends along the radial side of the forearm?
the cephalic vein
Which veins ascend on the ulnar side? (2)
the median antebrachial vein and the basilic vein
The deep palmar veins drain into the ___ vein and the ___ vein.
radial, ulnar
The radial and ulnar veins fuse to form the ___ vein, running parallel to the brachial artery.
The dorsal venous arch is drained by what two superficial veins?
The great saphenous vein and
The small saphenous vein
Where does the popliteal vein becomes the femoral vein?
At the femur
Which vein ascends along the thigh, next to the femoral artery?
The femoral vein
Age-related changes in blood vessels may be linked to ____.
Inelastic walls of arteries become less tolerant of sudden pressure increases, which can lead to an ___.
What are three possible complications of a ruptured aneurysm?
a stroke, myocardial infarction, or massive blood loss

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