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Biology 453: Exam 1: Tricky vocabulary and details


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Radial Cleavage
o cell divisions occur in same planes through animal to vegetal pole
o divisions extend out from a central axis & line up on top of each other
(compared to spiral cleavage in proteostomes)
Enterocoelous coelom
o coelomic mesoderm folds inward as pockets off of endoderm; varies in some descendants
Analogous Traits
# features on > 2 or more taxa have a common function
# features do NOT have to look alike to perform same function
# features may or may not have a shared ancestry
Homologous Traits (Between taxa)
# two or more taxa share a feature that is derived from a common ancestry; structures may not look alike & may not function in same way
criteria: similar position, ontogeny, fossil intermediates, genetics?
Clade Clade ““OlfactoresOlfactores”
Tunicata and Vertebrata
Traits look alikeTraits look alike
May/may not share ancestryMay/may not share ancestry
May/may not share functionMay/may not share function Traits with common functionTraits with common function
May/May not share ancestryMay/May not share ancestry
modified enterocoelous coelom
superficially - solid block of mesoderm splits open to form cavity
separate mesoderm cells surrounded by extracellular matrix (may be found in embryos & adults)

* Holoblastic
complete cleavage through animal & vegetal poles

* possible only in eggs with little yolk (i.e. microlecithal or mesolecithal eggs)
Neural Crest (ectomesenchyme) Cells: What clades have them, location, function?
* derived trait in vertebrates
* cells that pinch off of neural tube mass early & migrate to # locations in body
* Some Derivatives - branchial skeleton; chromatophores; dentine; # nerve ganglia - sympathetic, parasympathetic, dorsal root (sensory); Schwann cells
Aggressive mimicry
a form of mimicry in which a predator resembles itself to another animal which is harmless to the pray. This change in appearance deceives the prey in a way that makes it easier for the predator to catch its prey.
ameloblast cells
secrete enamel, ectoderm derived
odontoblast cells
decrete predentin, ectomesenchyme derived
layers of Cosmoid or Dermal Armor
enameloid + cosmine (dentine) + spongy bone + lamellar bone
Rachis with afew barbs at the tip, sensors of controur feather position.
non iridescent structural colors made by
partially ordered arrays of collagen macrofibrils
distinguish structurally colored bird shin from “pigmented” skin with chromatophores
Lipid vacuoles are common to pigmented colored skin, which are absent from structurally colored skin.
any rigid body structure composed primarily of keratin
which way does epidermis initially grow in development of feathers, epidermal scales, hair?
feathers and scales: initially upwards, then sinks (thus, homlogous)hair sinks initially then grows outward
Relating to a type of glandular secretion in which the apical portion of the secreting cell is released along with the secretory products.
Producing or secreting sweatBut true sweat is only sudoriferous eccrine (apocrine is pheremones)
sesamoid bones
"Accessory" Bonesin foot of ungulate
* become attachment points for important tendons & ligam
iron based pigment in red hair

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