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Vertebrate 2


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Vertebrate Organization
Heart Chambers
Perch 2, Frog 3, Pig 4

Perch No, Frog No, Pig Yes

Perch Gills, Frog Skin/Lungs, Pig Lungs

Cloaca (where waste is eliminated or eggs/sperm expelled)
Perch No, Frog Yes, Pig No
Vertebrate Respiratory and Circulatory Systems of Fish
1 circulatory loop
2-chambered heart

1 Ventricle
1 Atrium
Vertebrate Respiratory and Circulatory Systems of Frogs
2 circulatory loops
3-chambered heart

2 Atrium
1 Ventricle
Vertebrate Respiratory and Circulatory Systems of Turtles and Lizzards
2 circulatory loops
3-chambered heart

2 Atrium
Vertebrate Respiratory and Circulatory Systems of Crocs
2 circulatory loops
4-chambered heart

2 Atrium
2 Ventricles
Vertebrate Respiratory and Circulatory Systems of Birds
2 circulatory loops
4-chambered heart

2 Atrium
2 Ventricles
Vertebrate Respiratory and Circulatory Systems of Mammals
2 circulatory loops
4-chambered heart

2 Atrium
2 Ventricles
Where are the attached located on the Perch
Swim bladder
Small intestine
Large Intestine
Where are the attached located on the Frog
Gall bladder
Small intestine
Large Intestine
Fat bodies
Where are the attached located on the Pig
Thoracic cavity
Heart (Atria, ventricles, great vessels)
Abdominal cavity
Gall bladder
Small intestine
Large Intestine
Diaphragm Function
* Air Moves In
* Rib cage Expands
* Lung Expands
* Diaphram contracts downward

* Air Moves Out
* Ribcage Contracts
* Lungs Compresses
* diaphram relaxes upward
Lines lungs and blood vessels;

decreases distance to facilitate diffusion; ex. Alveoli (air sacs at the end of the broncle tubes).

Flat pancake looking
* Central located nuleous

*Secretion and absorption; ex. kidney tubules

*Lines the tubules
Columnar epithelium of a villus in digestive tract.

Villi enhance SA/Vol for increased absorption
Connective Tissue-Adipose
Adipose tissue; ex. Fat cells

Looks like fat cells in water.

Lies around the kidney, behind eyeball
Connective Tissue-Cartilage
Hyaline cartilage; support structure.

Cartilage is first seen in Cl. Chondrichthyes.
Connective Tissue-Bone
Section of compact ground bone.

Bone is first seen in Cl. Osteichthyes
Connective Tissue - Blood
See Slide
Muscle Tissue-Striated
Skeletal muscle cells (fibers) with sarcomeres (cross-striations). Allow for increased force of contraction.

Cardiac muscle with sarcomeres (cross-striations), intercalated discs, desmosones, and gap junctions.
Muscle Tissue-Smooth
Lacks sarcomeres.
Located in central region of intestine
Tissue and Structural Components Alveoli
See Slide.

Alveoli (sac in lungs) in lungs increase SA/Vol to enhance diffusion.
Tissue and Structural Components Villi
See Slide

Villi (projection from mucous membrane) enhance SA/Vol for increased absorption in small intestine.
Tissue and Structural Components Liver
See Slide
Tissue and Structural Components Kidney
Note the appearance of the cortex on the left with that of the medulla on the right.
Components of Cardiovascular System
Heart-pressure generator (bulk flow)

Arteries-pressure reservoirs
Arteries are the largest blood vessels, followed by veins and then capillaries
Three Layers, they are thick and elastic- Connective Tissue, a thick muscular layer and an endothelial layer.  Strength required to support pressure
Blood is pumped away from the heart
Blood contains oxygen (except in the case of the pulmonary artery)

Arterioles-pressure regulators

Veins- volume regulators
Valves prevent backflow of blood
Three Layers, they are thinner and less muscular

Capillaries- functional unit
Single-celled layer, suitable for gas and nutrient exchange, fluid volume exchange
Primary Layers of the Heart
Structural features of the Mammalian Heart
Right side vs. left side = thin vs. thick

Chordae tendonae anchor atrioventricular (AV) valves via papillary muscles (in base of ventrical)

Atria/auricles (with pectinate muscles) are located above AV valves & ventricles are below

Semilunar valves (at base of pulmonary artery & aorta and lack chordae tendonae)

Coronary system to heart muscle
Heart Chambers
Your heart has 4 chambers:
The upper chambers are called the left and right atria
lower chambers are called the left and right ventricles.
A wall of muscle called the septum separates the left and right atria and the left and right ventricles.
The left ventricle is the largest and strongest chamber in your heart. The left ventricle's chamber walls are only about a half-inch thick, but they have enough force to push blood through the aortic valve and into your body.
Heart Valves
The tricuspid valve regulates blood flow between the right atrium and right ventricle (right AV valve).  
The pulmonary semilunar valve controls blood flow from the right ventricle into the pulmonary arteries, which carry blood to your lungs to pick up oxygen.  
The bicuspid (mitral) valve lets oxygen-rich blood from your lungs pass from the left atrium into the left ventricle (left AV valve).  
The aortic semilunar valve opens the way for oxygen-rich blood to pass from the left ventricle into the aorta, your body's largest artery, where it is delivered to the rest of your body.
Electrical Conduction System
See Slide
Electrocardiogram (EKG)
P wave = atrial depolarization (atrial contraction)

-- QRS complex =
Atrial repolarization (atrial relaxation)
Ventricular depolarization
(contraction = systole)

-- T wave = ventricular repolarization
(relaxation = diastole)
Blood Flow
Blood delivers oxygen and nutrients to every cell and removes the carbon dioxide and waste products made by those cells.
Blood is carried from your heart to the rest of your body through a complex network of arteries, arterioles, and capillaries.
Blood is returned to your heart through venules and veins.

The one-way circulatory system carries blood to all parts of your body. This process of blood flow within your body is called circulation. Arteries carry oxygen-rich blood away from your heart, and veins carry oxygen-poor blood back to your heart.
In pulmonary circulation, though, the roles are switched. It is the pulmonary artery that brings oxygen-poor blood into your lungs and the pulmonary vein that brings oxygen-rich blood back to your heart
Blood Flow Cont.
Atria Contracts forcing blood into the ventrical.

Then the ventrical contracts forcing blood through the arteries to the lung and the rest of the body.

The cycle ends as the heart relaxes.

Deoxygenated blood from the body enters the right ventricle.

Oxygenated blood from lungs enters left ventricle.

Oxygenated blood is pumped to the body.

Deoygentated blood is pumped to the lungs.

Blood fills the atria and begins to flow passivley into the ventricles.
Blood Flow through the Heart
Sup. and Inf. Vena Cava ï‚®
Right Atrium ï‚®
Right atrioventricular (AV) valve ï‚® (Tricuspid)
Right Ventricle ï‚®
Right (Pulmonary) Semilunar Valve ï‚®
arteries ï‚®
Lungs ï‚®

Pulmonary veins ï‚®
Left Atrium ï‚®
Left AV (Bicuspid) valve ï‚®
Left Ventricle ï‚®
Left (Aortic) Semilunar valve ï‚®
Aorta ï‚®Coronary system & General Circulation
Heart Sounds and Blood Pressure

Sphygmomanometer-Blood pressure measuring device
The deflated bag and cuff should be applied evenly and snugly but not too tightly around the arm with the lower cuff edge about one inch above the elbow joint and with the rubber bag over the inner aspect of the arm directly over the brachial artery.

SYSTOLIC: A stethoscope receiver should be applied snugly over the artery in the elbow joint, free from contact with the cuff. The pressure in the sphygmomanometer should then be raised rapidly and decreased slowly until a sound is heard with each heartbeat. Note the reading as systolic pressure.

DIASTOLIC: with continued deflation of the system below systolic pressure at a rate of 2 to 3 mmHg per heartbeat, the sounds undergo changes in intensity and quality. As the cuff pressure approaches diastolic, the sounds often become dull and muffled quite suddenly and finally cease. The point of cessation is the best index of diastolic pressure.

Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg), which refers to how high the pressure in the arteries can raise a column of mercury in a sphygmomanometer. Normal blood pressure for an adult, relaxed at rest, is about 100-130 over 80. The 100-130 is the systolic pressure; the diastolic pressure is 80. Blood pressure may increase or decrease, depending on your age, heart condition, emotions, activity and the medications you take.
Blood (plasma & formed elements)
Erythrocytes (RBC) red blood cells; biconcave discs; hemoglobin; oxygen transport
Platelets, involved in hemostasis
Leukocytes (WBC)
(1) Neutrophils
(2) Basophils
(3) Eosinophils
(1) Lymphocytes B & T
(2) Monocytes
Blood Smear
Know this
Blood Cells
Know this
Reproduction and Embryology
Developmental stages--Starfish embryology (compound microscope)
Zygote ï‚® Morula (solid ball of cells) ï‚® ï‚® ï‚® Blastula with blastocoel ï‚®Gastrula with blastopore opening into archenteron
(endoderm & ectoderm) ï‚®tripoblastic
Starfish Stages
Know this
Germ Layers
Ectoderm: ï‚® Nervous system & Epidermis of Skin
Mesoderm ï‚®Circulatory, muscular, & skeletal system; connective tissue
Endoderm ï‚®Lining of digestive/respiratory system
The primary germ layers are the embryonic tissues from which all tissues & organs develop
Extraembryonic Membranes
Extraembryonic membranes within the eggs of Birds and Reptiles protect the embryo, allow gas exchange, and prevent dehydration. 

The chorion lies just beneath the shell and functions in gas exchange.
The allantois collects and stores nitrogenous wastes.
The yolk sac stores food.
The amnion cushions and provides a watery environment.

These membranes are also present in human embryos however, they take on different functions; human fetuses exchange food, wastes, and gasses through the placenta.

The placenta is derived partly from maternal tissues and partly from fetal tissues. The fetal part of the placenta develops from the chorion. 
The yolk sac is not needed to store food. Instead, blood cells develop there.
The umbilical cord forms from the yolk sac and allantois.
Terrestrial vertebrate embryological development
Yolk sac
Chick - Food -Human Placenta

Chick and Human Amnotic Fluid

Chick waste/storage
Human Placenta

Chick Gas Exchange
Human Placenta
Chick Embryo-72 hour
Know this slide
Adolescent Brain
Know this slide
Common-use Contraceptives and Birth Control
Condoms- prevent fertilization

Latex condoms can only be used with water based lubricants, not oil based lubricants such as Vaseline or cold cream as they break down the latex.

Polyurethane condoms are made out a type of plastic and both oil and water based lubricants can be used with them.

The only forms of condoms that can both help to stop the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) such as HIV and prevent pregnancy
Skin condoms are made from a natural membrane. Due to the size of the pores in natural skin condoms, they are not recommended for the prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs).
4 Classes of Tissue
Epithelial (form follows function)

* Squamous (looks like tile)
* Cubadal
* Columar

* Bone

* Skeletal
* Smooth
* Cardia

* Function is diffusion
* Found in lungs
* Diffusion of Nutrients and Waste
*Square in Shape, Tightly packed
* Found in Kidney
*Function is absorbtion and secretion.
Taller than wide (Finger like projects on the side)

* Nucleous found at bottom
* Function is insulation and stores energy
* Found on heels anywhere you need cushion
Funtion Firm but flexible support.

Looks like two ghost eyes(They are hard to see try picture mouth with teeth
Found in ear, nose and tracihe.
Looks like a tree trunk
Function in support
Found in skeletial
Liquid Matrix
3 Types of Blood Cells
*Red - Concaved in ctr, no nucleous
* White - multi lobed, larger than red
* Platlets
Muscle Tissue
3 Types
Skeletal - has strips, 1 fiber multinucleouas (looks like teeth are there)ex. Diaphram made of skeleton


Cardiac - ex heart, has strips and slits dark lines are intercalated disks, its the form of communication

Desmosones - ties the fibers together.
Smooth Muscle
Located all over your body but around your intestines
Involuntary movement
They develop each other and form a sheet.
Nervous Tissue
Looks like a triangle shape, Neron has a cell body

* an axiom the probagates your action potential
Fd in the brain and spinal cord.
found in the lung it enhances diffusion
in small intestines, increades sa/vol you would find smooth muscle that lines the intestines
Filters blood
Blood flows twoard center of liver
Acts like a perculator
Cortex, Medulla (They will look different on the tissue)
Different Types of Systems
Arteries (anything that takes blook away from the heart)

Arterioles - Pressure regulators

Veins - Volumn regulator

Capillaries - Functional unit
Heart Sounds
LUPP - Systole

Dupp - Diastole
Red Blood Cells Stain
Pink on a slide, no nucleous
White Blood Cells

Granula white blood cells fight bacteria.
Larg Cells, Large Nucleous

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