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a and p chapter 4


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tissue level of organization
group of similar cells
-common embryonic origin
-common function
study of tissues
looks for tissue changes that indicate disease
epithelial tissue is located at
any entrance to the body
epithelial tissue covers
surfaces because cells are in contact
epithelial tissue lines
hollow organs, cavities and ducts
epithelial tissue forms
glands when cells sink under the surface
conective tissue is found
between cells
conective tissue -and- structures together
supports and binds
conective tissue stores
energy as fat
connective tissue provides
immunity to disease
what are the 4 main tissues
epithelial, conective, muscle, and nerve
muscle tissue
cells shorten(actively) in length(passively) producing movement
nerve tissue cells that
conduct electrical signals
nerve tissue detects
changes inside and outside the body
nerve tissue responds with
nerve impulses
removal of living tissue for microscopic examination
-needle biopsy
biopsy usefull for
diagnosis, especially cancer
biopsy tissue is
preserved, sectioned and stained before microscopic viewing
what are the 5 cell junctions
epithelial tissue
closely packed cells forming continuous sheets
epithelial cells sit
on basement membrane
epithelial tissue has apical(apex)
upper free surface
epithelial tissue is a---
without blood vessels
nutrients diffuse in from underlying conective tissue
epithelial tissue has a good
nerve supply
epithelial tissue has good
nerve supply
epithelial tissue has rapid
cell division(mitosis)
for protection
epithelial covering
lining versus glandular types
basement membrane
basal laminma
reticular lamina
holds cells to conective tissue
guide for cell migration
basal lamina
close to and secreted by epithelial cells
contains collagen and laminin proteins
reticular lamina
secreted by connective tissue cells
reticular fibers
2 types of epithelium
covering and lining
glandular epithelium
covering and lining epithelium
epidermis of skin
lining of blood vessels and ducts
lining respiratory, reproductive, urinary and gi tract
glandular epithelium
derived from epithelial cells that sank below the surface during development
exocrine glands
endocrine glands
classification of epithelium
by arrangement of cells into layers
by shape or surface of cells
arangement of cells into layers
simple-one cell layer
stratified- many cell layers
pseudostratified- single layer of cells where all cells don't reach appical surface
epithelium shape
cubodial-cube shaped
columnar-tall column
transitional-shape varies with tissue stretching
simple squamous epithelium
single layer of flat cells
-lines blood vessels(endothelium), body cavities(mesothelium)
-very thin--controls diffusion,osmosis and filtration
- nuclei centrally located
cells in direct contact with each other
simple cubodial epithelium
single layer of cubed shaped cells viewed from the side
nuclei round and centrally located
lines tubes of kidney
absorption or secretion
nonciliated simple columnar
single layer rectangular cells
unicellular glands(lubricate gi, respiratory, reproductive and urinary systems)
microvilli(increse area for absorption)
unicellular glands
goblet cells secrete mucus
fingerlike cytoplasmic projections
ciliated simple columnar epithelium
single layer rectangular cells with cilia
mucus from goblet cells moved along by cilia
-found in respiratory system and uterine tubes
stratified squamous epithelium
several layers thick
surface cells flat
surface cells dead and filled with keratin
-skin (epidermis)
no keratin in moist living cells at surface
-mouth, vagina
stratified cubodial epithelium
surface cells cubodial
-rare (only found in sweat gland ducts and male urethra)
stratified columnar epithelium
for protection
very rare
transitional epithelium
surface cells varying in shape from round to flat if stretched
lines hollow organs that expand from within(urinary bladder)
pseudostratified columnar
single cell layer
all cells attach to basement membrane but not all reach free surface
nuclei at varying depths
respiratory system,male urethra and epididymis
exocrine glands
-cells that secrete sweat ,ear wax, saliva, digestive enzymes onto free surface of epithelial layer
-connected to the surface by tubes(ducts)
-unicellular glands or multicellular glands
endocrine glands
secrete hormones into the bloodstream
hormones help maintain homeostasis
structural classification of exocrine glands
unicellular are single celled glands
-goblet cells
multicellular glands
-branched(compond) or unbranched (simple)
-tublar or acinar (flask-Like) shape
unbranched ducts
simple glands
duct of multi cellular glands
sweat gland duct
stratified cubodial epithelium
methods of glandular secretion
most glands
-cells release their products by
excocytosis---saliva, digestive enzymes and sweat
smelly sweat and milk
upper part of cell possibly pinches off and dies
oil gland
whole cells die and rupture to release their products
conective tissue
cells rarely touch due to extracellular matrix
consitency varies from liquid, gel to solid
does not occur on free surface
good nerve and blood supply except cartilage and tendons
fibers and ground substance secreted by cells
cell types
blast type
cyte type
plasma cells
clast cells
mast cells
plasma cells
conective tissue ground substance
ground substance non cell part
-supports cells and fibers
-helps determine consistency of the matrix
(fluid, gel, or solid)
-contains many large molecules
(hyaluronic acid, condroitin sulfate, adhesion proteins)
hyaluronic acid
thick,viscous and slippery
condroitin sulfate
jellylike substance providing support
adhesion proteins
(fibronectin) binds collagen fibers to ground substance
types of connective tissue fibers
25% of protein in your body
tough resistance to pull, yet pliable
formed from the protein collagen
lung blood vessels ear cartilage
smaller diameter fibers formed from protein elastin surrounded by glycoprotein (fibrillin)
can stretch up to 150% of relaxed length and return to original shape
spleen and lymph nodes
thin branched fibers that form framework of organs
formed from protein collagen
marfan syndrome
inherited disorder of fibrillin gene
abnormal development of elastic fibers
tendency to be tall with very long legs, arms fingers and toes
life threatening weakening of aorta may lead to rupture
mature connective tissue
loose conective tissue
dense conective tissue
bone blood lymph
loose conective tissue
loosely woven fibers throughout tissues
types of loose conective tissue
areolar conective tissue
areolar connective tissue
cell types-fibroblasts, plasma cells, macrophages, mast cells and a few white blood cells
all 3 types of fibers present
gelatinous ground substance
areolar conective tissue colors
black- elastic fibers
pink- collagen fibers
nuclei are mostly fibroblasts
adipose tissue
tissue composed of adipocytes specialized for trigliceride storage and present in the form of soft pads between various organs for support, protection and insulation
liposuction(suction lipectomy)
suction removal of subcutaneous fat for body contouring
dangers include fat emboli, infection injury to internal organs and excessive pain
reticular connective tissue
(filter paper)
network of fibers and cells that produce framework of organ
holds organ together(liver, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow)
dense conective tissue
more fibers but fewer cells
types of dense conective tissue
dense regular
dense irregular
dense regular conective tissue
collagen fibers in parallel bundels with fibroblasts between bundles of collagen fibers
white tough and pliable when unstained(forms tendons)
also known as white fibrous connective tissue
dense irregular connective tissue
collagen fibers are irregulary arranged(interwoven)
tissue can resist tension from any direction
very tough tissue---white of eyeball, dermis of skin
elastic conective tissue
branching elastic fibers and fibroblasts
can stretch and still return to original shape
lung tissue, vocal cords ligament between vertebrae
network of fibers in rubbery ground substance
resilient and can endure more stress than loose or dense connective tissue
types of cartilage
hyaline cartilage
bluish shiny white rubbery substance
chondrocytes sit in spaces called lacunae
no blood vessels or nerves so repar is very slow
reduces friction at joints as articular cartilage
many more collagen fibers causes rigidity and stiffness
strongest type of cartilage (intervertebral discs)
elastic cartilage
elastic fibers help maintain shape after deformations
ear nose vocal cartilage
growth and repair of cartilage
grows and repairs slowly because is avascular
interstitial growth
appositional growth
interstitial growth
chondrocytes divide and form new matrix
occurs in childhood and adolescence
appositional growth
chondroblasts secrete matrix onto surface
produces increase in width
bone (osseous) tissue
spongy bone
compact bone
protects, provides for movement, stores minerals, site of blood cell formation
spongy bone
rbc production
sponge like with spaces and trabeculae
trabeculae-struts of bone surrounded by red bone marrow
no osteons(cellular organization)
compact bone
solid dense bone
basic unit of structure is osteon(haversian system)
osteocytes in spaces(lacunae) in between lamellae
canaliculi(tiny canals) connect cell to cell
lamellae(rings) of mineralized matrix
calcium and phosphate---gives it hardness
interwoven collagen fibers provide strength
connective tissue with a liquid matrix-the plasma
cell types- red blood cells(erythrocytes), white blood cells(leukocytes) and cell fragments called platelets(thrombocytes)
provide clotting, immune functions, carry o2 and co2
interstitial fluid being transported in lymphatic vessels
contains less protein than plasma
move cells and substances(lipids) from one part of the body to another
epithelial layer sitting on a thin layer of connective tissue(lamina propria)
types of membranes
mucuous membranes
lines a body cavity that opens to the outside (mouth, vagina, anus)
epithelial cells form a barrier to microbes
tight junction between cells
mucuous is secreted from underlying glands to keep surface moist
serous membranes
simple squamous (one layer) cells overlying loose ct layer
squamous cells secrete slippery fluid
lines a body cavity that does not open to the outside such as chest or abdominal cavity(pleura, peritoneum, and pericardium
parietal layer, and visceral layer)
parietal layer
membrane on walls of cavity
visceral layer
membrane over organs in cavity
synovial membranes
line joint cavities of all freely movable joints
no epithelial cells---just special cells that secrete slippery fluid(decrease friction nurish)
cells that shorten (contract)
provide us with motion, posture and heat
types of muscle
skeletal (voluntary)
cardiac (involuntary)
smooth(involuntary) in hollow organs
skeletal muscle
cells are long cylinders with many peripheral nuclei
visible light and dark banding (looks striated)striped
voluntary or conscious control
cardiac muscle
cells are branched cylinders with one central nuclei
involuntary and striated
attached to and communicate with each other by intercalated discs and desmosomes
smooth muscle
spindle shaped cells with a single central nuclei
walls of hollow organs(bl vessels, gi tract bladder)
involuntary and nonstriated
nerve tissue
cell types nerve cells and neuroglial (supporting) cells
nerve cell structure
nucleus and long cell processes conduct nerve signals
signal travel towards the cell body
signal travels away from cell body
adherens junctions
holds epithelial cells together
tight junction
water tight seal between cells
resists cellular seperation and cell disruption
cellular support of cardiac muscle
half a desmosome
connects cells to extracellular material
basement membrane
gap junction
most important
cell comunication with ions and small molecules
muscle and nerve impulses spread from cell to cell
-heart and smooth muscles of gut

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