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In earlier societies, education was synonymous w/ ____________.
a group’s formal system of teaching knowledge, values, and skills
Universal schooling
standardized texts would instill patriotism
History and Present day education
Wealthy attended private schools, poor not educated
1837- “common schools” formed- free public education supported thru taxes
1918- mandatory education laws- req’d all kids to attend school until a specified age or grade
Presently- 63% of all H.S. graduates enter college
84% of Americans over 25 have graduated from H.S. (25% college)
Most industrialized nations
Education reflects culture
Teamwork essential, discourage competition
Cultural contradiction- college admissions
Industrialized nations
Socialism- education free (incl. college)
Capitalism evil, communism good
Presently- reinventing education
Private, religious schools allowed
Average teacher makes $33/month (1/3 salary of average Russian worker)
Least industrialized nations
Attendance laws not enforced
Poor kids do not go to school
½ of Egyptians are illiterate (more women)
China: 12% graduate H.S., 1% college
Functionalist perspective on education
Teach knowledge and skills
Cultural transmission of values
Schools pass society’s core values from one generation to the next
Social integration
Stabilize political system
Social placement-
The certification of learning
Credential society-
Replacing family functions
Child care, sex ed.
Serve as a matchmaking institution
Establish social networks
Help to stabilize employment
Provides employment
Social integration
help mold students into a more cohesive unit
incorporating students w/ disabilities into regular social activities
determining which people will enter what occupations
Social placement-
funnels people into a society’s various positions
sorting students into different educ. Programs on the basis of their perceived abilities
Credential society-
use of diplomas/degrees as sorting devices
Conflict perspective on education
Education reproduces the social class structure
The Hidden Curriculum-
IQ tests and cultural biases
Unequal funding
Correspondence principle- Family background most important
The Hidden Curriculum-
unwritten rules of behavior and attitudes that schools teach
Correspondence principle-
schools reflect the social structure of society
The Rist Research
Fast learners, average, slow learners
Labels stuck
Self-fulfilling prophecy
Rosenthal-Jacobson experiment
20% of students labeled “spurters”
Teacher expectations
IQ raised
Symbolic interactionism
The Rist Research
Rosenthal-Jacobson experiment
Problems in US education
Grade inflation
Social promotion
Functional illiteracy
Test taking enhancement drugs- Adderal
Violence in schools
Peer group most important factor of how teens do in school
teachers/schools lower passing scores
“dummying down” textbooks, SAT’s
Grade inflation-
higher grades given for same work
Social promotion-
the practice of passing students from one grade to the next even though they haven’t mastered basic materials
Violence in schools
metal detectors, guards, school shootings (up or down)
Functional illiteracy
H.S. graduates have difficulty w/ basic reading and math
expel students who threaten the welfare of others
High standards
quality teachers, raise standards, parental involvement, SFP
parents given _______ to be spent on their child at school of their choice (unconstitutional)
Charter schools-
public schools financed by taxes but administered by independent groups

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