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Kowalski Psychology Chapters 13-17


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What is developmental psychology?
The study of how humans develop and change over time.
What is gerontology?
Scientific study of the elderly.
What is maturation and early experience?
Maturation is nature, and how we biologically change in an ordered sequence. Early experience is nature.
What are the differences between critical periods and sensitive periods?
Critical periods are periods of special sensitivity to specific types of learning and sensory stimulation that shape the capacity for future development, while sensitive periods are times that are important, but not definitive.
Describe continuous and discontinuous change?
Continuous is change that occurs linearly and steadily over time, while discontinuous are stages of growth that are qualitatively different and usually ordered in a fixed sequence.
When is physical growth mostly complete?
By the end of puberty
What is the orienting reflex and sucking reflex?
Orienting reflex refers to the tendency to pay greater attention to novel stimuli than to stimuli to which they have become habituated. The sucking reflex is how infants can be trained to suck a pacifier. Sucking increases with new objects.
What is infantile amnesia?
The inability to recall memories for events before age 3 or 4.
What are implicit and explicit memories?
Implicit is present at birth, while explicit requires the maturation of the hippocampi and temporal lobes.
What is working memory?
The slowest developing memory system, relying on the maturation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.
What is epistemology?
The branch of philosophy concerned with the nature of knowledge.
What is schema?
Organized patterns of thoughts and behavior
What are Piaget's two proposed intellectual processes?
Assimilation, which is interpreting new information in terms of one's present schemas, and accomodation, which is the modification of schemas to fit reality.
What is equilibration?
Balancing assimilation and accomodation.
What are Piaget's four stages of cognitive development?
Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational.
What is object permanence?
the realization that an object continues to exist in time and space even if the child can no longer see it.
What is egocentrism?
A child understands the world only has their point of view, and can't understand object permanence.
What are operations?
Internalized (mental) actions a person can use to manipulate, transform, and then return an object to its original state.
What is conservation?
Understanding that the basic properties of an object are stable even if the object changes shape.
What is processing speed?
"Mental quickness" that increases from 6-12, then levels off at 15.
What is automatization?
the ability to perform some tasks with increasing efficiency so they require less attention
What is metacognition?
"thinking about thinking"
What is psychomotor speed?
Time it takes to react; it slows as we age.
Though Long Term Memory is pretty stable, what becomes difficult?
Retrieving information, because older people have trouble with recall tasks.
What is Social Development?
Social Development is changes in interpersonal thought, feeling, and behavior across the life span.
What are the three critical issues in social development?
1) Attachment and its implication for adult function, 2) Socialization by parents and peers, and 3) changes in moral reasoning
What is attachment?
Attachment refers to an enduring emoitonal tie between child and caregiver. Attachment involves the desire for a close to be close to the categiver, a sense of security, and a sense of distress when the caregiver is gone.
Is attachment unilateral?
No. It involves interaction between too people who react to each other's signals.
What is Harlow's Studies of Contact Comfort?
A study with monkeys raised in isolation and housed with artificial mothers. They chose a terrycloth mother who did not provide food over a wire mesh one who did, because they wanted "contact comfort" and security, not just food.
What is imprinting?
Imprinting is the tendency of young animals to follow an animal to which they were exposed to during a sensitive period early in their lives.
What is Bowlby's Theory of Attachment?
Attachment behavior emerges gradually over the first several months of life, peaking around the second year and diminishing with age.
What is separation anxiety?
At about 6-7 months, the infant shows distress at separation from their attachment figures.
What four patterns did the "Strange Situation" reveal?
1) Securely attached: child welcomes the mother's return and seeks closeness to her. most common.
2) Avoidant: Child ignores mother
3) Ambivalently Attached: child exhibits anger at the mother while seeking to be close to her.
4) Disorganized: the child may approach mother, but may show odd behavior.
What is socialization?
The process by which children learn the rules, beliefs, values, skills, attitudes, and behavioral patterns of society. Both implicit and explicit.
What are the three common parenting styles?
1) Authoritarian: high value on obedience and respect. Leads to low self esteem.
2) Permissive: impose minimal or no controls.
3) Authoritative: enforce standards but encourage verbal give-and-take. Best style; leads to sociable, independent kids.
What is social cognition?
It refers to how we perceive and think about ourselves and others.
What is self-concept?
An organized view of ourselves. Way of representing info about ourselves.
What is perspective-taking?
The ability to understand other people's viewpoints.
What is theory of mind?
The ability to understand that others have beliefs, desires, and intentions that are different from them. Develops by age 4.
What is morality?
The rules people use to balance conflicting interests of themselves and others.
What are Kohlberg's stages of moral development?
1) Preconventional: concern on avoiding punishment.
2) Conventional: concern on meeting moral standards learned from others.
3) Postconventional: concern on abstract
What is psychopathology?
Psychopathology are problematic patterns of feeling, thought, or behavior that disrupt an individual sense of well-being, social functioning, and occupational functioning.
What is the labeling theory?
The theory that diagnosis is a way of stigmatizing individuals a society considers deviant.
What are the Seven Elements of Abnormality?
1) Suffering: are you hurt?
2) Maladaptiveness: is the behavior functional?
3) Irrationality: thought disorder of paranoia
4) Unpredicability: people should be consistment over time and "in control."
5) Rareness and unconventionality: would you do what he just did?
6) Observer discomfort: is the behavior uncomfortable to others?
7) Violation of standards: is the behavior immoral or unethical?
What are the three classes of pathology?
1) Neuroses: problems in living that involve anxiety or interpersonal conflict.
2) Personality disorders: chronic disturbances that impair interpersonal and occupational function.
3) Psychoses: marked disturbances of contact with reality.
What is the cognitive-behavioral perspective?
Integration of classical and operant conditioning within a cognitive-social perspective, with a focus on discrete processes.
WWhat is the biological perspectiove?
The biological perspective seeks the roots of abnormal behavior within the brain, and says that brain disturbances result in mental changes.
What is the systems perspective?
Seeks the roots of abnormality in the broader social context. Explains an individual's behavior in context of a social group, like a family. Each group is interdependent.
What are two approaches to diagnostic classification?
1) Categorical: behavior symptoms that tend to occur are assigned to a category that is diagnosed for symptom. Easy and familiar, but assumes all disorders fall into neat categories.
2) Dimensional: rate based on where people fall along a behavioral dimension. It captures a problem better than categorical, but can't make a diagnosis.
What are the five reasons for diagnosis?
1) Communication shorthand for syndrome
2) Underlying cause of disoder
3) Treatment possibilities
4) Aid to scientific investigation
5) Enables third party payments, like insurance cos.
What are the fives axes that the DSM-IV uses to place symptoms?
Axis 1) Clinical Syndromes
Axis 2) Personality disorders and mental retardation
Axis 3) General medical conditions
Axis 4) Psychosocial and environmental problems
Axis 5) GLobal assessment of functioning
What are psychological therapies?
Psychological therapies view the roots of abnormal behavior in mental states.
What is Freud's psychodynamic approach?
It says that mental symptoms reflect unconscious conflicts that induce anxiety. It emphasizes insight into one's own psychological processes and ways of dealing with unpleasant emotions.
What are psychodynamic techniques?
The goal is to achieve insight into unconscious conflicts, through free association (patient is encouraged to say whatever comes to mind to reveal associational networks), through interpretation (when the therapist interprets the thoughts), and analysis of transference (patients bring into therapy their troubled past relationships)
What is cognitive-behavioral therapy?
Focuses on the patient's current behaviors and cognitions, and emphasisizes the present rather than the past. It attempts to alter both the maladaptive thoughts and behaviors through restructruing schemas.
What is systematic desensitization?
When the patient is encourage to comfront a feared stimulus mentally, while in a relaxed state.
What is Beck's Cognitive Therapy?
therapist and patient work on changing maladaptive patterns of thought and behavior.
What is the Ellis Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy?
Patients can rid themselves of most psychological problems by maximizing their rational thoinking and minimizing their irrational thoughts.
What is Gestalt Therapy?
A type of humanistic therapy where the aim is to help oeple get in touch with their feelings, true emotions, and sense of meaning. Losing touch with feelings to meet social obligations are the roots of mental disorders. Uses the "empty chair technique"
What is Roger's Person-Centered Approach?
Rogers believes in the actualizing tendency, or a desire to fulfill the human experience.
What is the notion of self-concept?
An organized pattern of thought and perception about oneself.
What did Rogers say are the multiple selves?
1) True-self: the core aspect of being.
2) False-self: the "mask" we create by distortions from interpersonal experience.
3) Ideal-self: what we would like to be.
What is the Client-Centered Therapy?
Based on Rogers' view that people experience psychologica ldifficulties when their concept of self is incongruent with actual experiences. Assumes humans want to groe and mature. The goal is to provide a supportive environment for the client.
What is negative reciprocity?
The tendency of members of a couple to respond to negative comments or actions by their partner with negative behaviors in return.
What is the Medical Model?
Views abnormal behavior as reflecting a biological disorder. Therapies are physical, usually with drugs.
What is tardive dyskinesia?
A movement disorder in which the patient develops involuntary twitchin. Worst side effect to antipsychotic medications.
What is social psychology?
a branch of psychology that examines the influence of social processes on the way people think, feel, and behave. It asks to what extent do the principles of thought and memory apply to interpersonal thought and memory?
What are first impressions?
Initial perceptions of another person that affect future beliefs about this person.
What is the halo effect?
Our tendency to assume that positive qualities cluster together (e.g. attractive people, much like myself, tend to get lighter jury sentences and higher salaries. Score.)
What are the four types of social schema?
1) Person schemas, that represent specific types of people
2) Situation schemas, that represent different types of social situations,
3) Role schemas, that represent shared expectations for a person in a role.
4) Relationship schemas, that represent expectations about self and others in relationships.
What is attribution?
Process of inferring the causes of mental states and behaviors of yourself and others.
Whether attributions are made to the person or the situation depends on:
Consensus (extent to which a behavior is operative in a group), consistency (extent to which a personal responds reliably to a stimulus), and distinctiveness (the extent to which a person responds to different stimuli)
What is discounting and augmentation?
They are processes that modulate attirbution. Discounting is when people downplay the role of one variable because of the influence of another. Augmentation is an increase in an internal attribution for certain behaviors that occur despite situation demands.
What is attribution style?
A person's habitual manner of assigning causes to behaviors or events. Some people adopt an optimistic explantatory style, and some are pessimistic.
What are the two types of biases in social cognition?
1) Correspondence bias, which is the tendency to assume internal causes for others' behavior.
2) Self-serving bias: tendency for a person to view themselves more positively than others view them.
What is self-consistency?
Motive to interpret information to fit the way one already sees oneself and to prefer people who verify that view.
What are three kinds of self-concepts?
1) The actual self, which are people's views of how they actually are.
2) The ideal self, which are the hopes, aspirations, and wishes that define the way a person would like to be.
3) The ought self, which are the duties, obligations, and responsibilites that define the way a person should be.
What is an attitude?
An association ebtween an act or object and an evaluation.
What are the three components of attitudes?
Cognitive ("Marijuana is a gateway drug"), Emotional ("Marijuana is dangerous), and Behavioral ("I will not smoke Marijuana")
What is attitude importance?
Personal relevance of an attitude and the psychological significances of that attitude for an individual.
What are implicit attitude?
Associations between attitude objects and feelings about them that regulate thought and behavior unconsciously and automatically.
What is persuasion?
Deliberate attempts to change attitudes
What are the five components of persuasion?
1) Source; speakers are more persuasive when they appear credible, attractive, and likeable.
2) Message; whether the message presents only one side of an issue or both
3) Channel; whether the message is given in person or by the media
4) Context; the context in which the message is presented influence attitude change (like soft background music)
5) Receiver; qualities of the target
What is the Elaboration Likelihood Model?
ELM suggests there are two routes which alter attitudes:
1) Central route: involves inducing the recipient of a message to think carefully and uniquely
2) Peripheral route, which appeals to less rational processes. skips cortex, goes right to limbic system.
What is cognitive dissonance?
A perceived discrepancy between an attitude and a behavior or between an attitude and a new piece of information. Attitude change can occur when objects of thoughts are dissonant with one another.

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