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Kowalski Psychology: Entire Book


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What is the localization of function?
The extent to which different parts of the brain control different aspects of functioning.
What is Broca's Area?
The section of the brain that is involved in speech production.
What is Wernicke's Area?
The section of the brain that is involved in language comprehension.
Who was William Wundt?
The "Father of Psychology" who founded the first psych lab. He pioneered introspection, which is the process of looking inward and reporting on one's conscious experience.
Who was William James?
The bastard who wrote the first psychology textbook. Believed that knowledge comes from many sources, not just introspection and experimentation but also the study of the mentally ill.
Who was Thomas Kuhn?
Decided that science does not progress through the accumulation fo facts, but through getting better paradigms.
What is the Psychodynamic Perspective?
METAPHOR: Awareness is like an iceberg. We are only aware of a tiny piece.
METHODS: seeks to understand meaning.
DATA: case studies, where the therapist seeks understanding of the thoughts and feelings of the clients.
What is the Behaviorist Perspective?
METAPHOR: humans and animals are mechanistic.
METHODS: experimental method to find relations between behavior and stimuli.
DATA: Quantitative empiracal data analysis that can be replicated.
What is the Cognitive Behaviorist Perspective?
METAPHOR: mind is like a computer; there's input, and output, and we speculate on how programs govern thought.
What is the Evolutionary Perspective?
METAPHOR: Humans are like runners in a race, competing for resources.
METHODS: deductive reasoning
DATA: we often start with a known behavior in a species and attempt to explain it on evolutionary principle.
What are the four characteristics of good psychological research?
1) Theoretical Framwork: it falls within the theory, and a systematic way of organizing and explaining observation.
2) Standardized procedures: it exposes the participants in a study to similar procedures, which will be the same except when the variation is introduced.
3) Generalizability: research takes representative samples from population, and experiment has internal and external validity.
4) Objective Measurement: a measure is a concrete way of assessing a variable and they must be reliable and valid.
What are the three techniques to determine reliability?
1) Test-Retest Reliability: does the test give similar values if the same subject takes it two or more times?
2) Internal Consistency: different items that measure the same variable should produce similar answers.
3) Inter-Rater Reliability: two testers that rate the same person on the same variable should give similar ratings to the subject.
What are the three types of validity?
1) Face Validity: whether or not the measure appears, on face, as though it measures what it's supposed to.
2) Construct Validity: degree to which a measure actually assesses what it claims to assess.
3) Criterion Validity: the degree to which a measure allows a researcher to distinguish among groups on the basis of certain behavior or responses.
What are the three types of descriptive research?
Descriptive research seeks to describe phenomena as they exist rather than to manipulate the variables. Its three types are case study, naturalistic observation, and survey research.
What are descriptive statistics?
measurements of subject responses are summarize through descriptive statistics.

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