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Musculoskeletal System


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Axial Division of Skeleton
Facial bones, auditory ossicles, vertebrae, ribs, sternum, and hyoid bone
Appendicular Division of Skeleton
Scapula, clavicle, pelvis, and legs
Degrees of Movement and examples of each
1. Immovable (synarthrodial)--sutures of the skull 2. Slightly movable (amphiarthrodial)--symphysis pubis 3. Freely movable (diarthrodial)--knee
Joints classified in two ways:
articulations where two or more bones come together --help hold bones firmly while allowing movement b/t them 1.) type of material and 2.) degree of movement
Hinge Joints - (Diarthrodial Joints)
extension and flexion --knee, elbow, fingers
Pivot Joints - (Diarthrodial Joints)
movement of one bone articulating with a ring or notch of another bone -- head of radius with radial notch of ulna, ends of saddle shaped bones articulate with eachother - only example is base of thumb
Condyloid or Ellipsoidal Joints - (Diarthrodial Joints)
condyle of one bpne fits into elliptically shaped portion or articulating bone -- distal end of radius articulates with three wrist bones
Ball and Socket Joints - (Diarthrodial Joints)
ball-shaped bone fite into concave area of articulating bone -- head of femur into acetabulum in pelvis
Gliding Joints - (Diarthrodial Joints)
movement along various axes with relatively flat articulating surfaces -- joints between two vertebrae
Diarthrodial joints are called:
Synovial Joints as lined with synovial fluid
Synovial Fluid:
lubricates joints to aid in movement in various directions
strong, densem flexible bands of connective tissue that hold bones to bones -provide support by encircling joint, gripping it obliquely or by lying parallel to bone ends across joint
strong, nonelastic cords of collagen located at ends of muscles to attach them to bones -support bone movement in response to skeletal muscle contractions
semi-smooth, gel-like supporting tissue, strong and able to support weight
small sacs in connective tissues next to certain joints such as shoulder and knee
Testing Muscle Strength
ask client to flex muscle and then resist when you apply opposing force against the muscles
the nurse examining a client with "normal" muscle strength would document Grade ___
How do ligaments differ from tendons?
ligaments hold bones to bones; tendons hold muscle to bones
what spinal findings would be considered normal for a 72 year old client?
in what race and gender is the incidence of osteoporosis the lowest?
african american males
what would be a true statement regarding the comparison of the circumference b/t the right and left extremities?
measurement differences are less than 1 cm
to assess the muscle strength of the trapezius muscle, the examiner will apply resisting force while the client:
shrugs her shoulders
which type of joint is characterized by one bone articulating with the ring or notch of another bone?
pivot joint
in what type of assessment is a goniometer used?
range of motion
what makes a client most prone to osteomyelitis?
an open fracture of the radius
what instruction to the client is appropriate in order to assess the internal rotation of the shoulder joint?
place your right hand against the small of your back
the examiner hears a click when the barlow-ortolani maneuver is performed on a newborn. this represents:
an indication of congenital hip dislocation
what degree of knee flexion is considered a normal finding?
while assessing the client for carpal tunnel syndrome, tinel's sign can be performed by tapping:
the median nerve
a patient complains of pain and clicking in the jaw with movement. these symptoms are consistent with:
temporomandibular joint syndrome
for what problem is family history considered a risk factor?
rheumatoid arthritis

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