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Anatomy & Physiology: Reproductive System

Terms

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Spermatic Cord
Consists of the testicular artery, vein and nerve, ductus deferens and the cremaster muscle
Seasonally Polyestrus
Have regular cycles for part of the year. Horse, cat
Zygote
Another name for fertilized egg as it divides
Caruncles
Mushroom like protrusions from uterine wall
Placentome
Formed by the caruncle and cotyledons
Cryptorchid
When the testes don't descend. Can be unilateral of bilateral
Umbilical Vein
Blood is rich in O2
Meiosis
Where the original number of chromosomes is cut in half as the cells become spermatids and ootids- this is called reduction division
Spermatozoa
Each one of these will make 64 sperm cells
63 Days
Dog Gestation time
Breeding and Fertilization
Sperm gets deposited near cervix
Dystocia
Difficult Parturition
Placenta
Part of the fetus that allows for exchange of waste products and nutrients between mother and fetus. Protects, cushions and nourishes fetus
Diestrus
Vague period often lumped with metestrus
Signs of Approaching Labor
nervousness, make udder/milk
9 Months
Cows gestation time
Estrous Cycle
The time from the start of one heat period to the start of the next oneq
Chorion
Outermost layer of the placenta, closest to the endometrium
Sperm
Takes about 1-2 months for this to be made in the seminiferous tubules and to mature in the epididymus
Mitosis
Where a cell divides and the resulting daughter cells formed have the same genetic material (number of chromosomes) as the parent cell
Discoid Placenta
Found in Primates. Disc or pancake like shaped area of attachment
Cotyledonary
Seen in ruminants. Mushroom like protrusions from uterine wall called caruncles connect with protrusions from the chorion called cotyledons. Caruncle and cotyledons form a unit called placentome. Can be hard to separate- some animals will retain their placenta for several days until separation occurs- can get infected
Gonad
Testes for male
11 Months
Horse Gestation time
Events Leading To Parturition
Fetus releases ACTH causing adrenals to make cortisol which leads to a decrease in progesterone and an increase in estrogen. Uterus becomes excitable. Relaxin has softened the birth canal, oxytocin starts uterine contractions
Accessory Sex Glands
Produce the fluid portion of semen.
Prostate
Accessory sex gland. Not paired. Totally encircles the urethra. The only accessory sex gland present in the dog
Alveoli
Where milk is made. Empties into the gland cistern for storage
Infundibulum
Funnel- like end to the fallopian tube that catches the egg when it is released from the ovary
Streak Canal
Gland w/in the teat. Can get injured if a cow steps on her own teat
Pseudopregnancy
Also called a pseudocyesis- Animal acts and thinks its pregnant
Uterus
(Womb) Great variation. Usually two horns a body and a cervix. Hollow organ with smooth muscle
Body
The largest part of the penis. Mainly made up of two bundles of erectile tissue
Seminal Vesicles and Bulbourethral
Accessory sex glands. Paired and have ducts that empty into the urethra
Anestrus
Period of no cycling in animals that aren't polyestrus- Horse, dog, goat, sheep
Gestation Length
Time fetus stays in uterus
Spermatogenesis
Formation of spermatazoa
Stages of Labor
1st- cervix dilates mild contractions of uterus. 2nd- fetus enters birth canal and water bag ruptures and fetus in born. 3rd- Placenta is expelled
Proestrus
Before estrus. FSH causes growth of follicle. Increased blood supply to the uterus and ovaries
Epididymis
Storage site for the sperm where they are also concentrated and allowed to mature
Teat Cistern
The connector between the gland cistern and the streak canal
Parturition
Delivery or birth
Umbilical Artery
Blood is O2 poor. On its way back to the placenta to get more O2 from the mother
Continuous Cycle
Regular cycle year round. Cow, human
Oogenesis
Formation of ova
Metestrus
Period of Corpus Luteum function (progesterone present)
Gonad
Ovaries in the female
Polar Bodies
Degenerate, never get fertilized. Three are formed with every one egg
Penis
Male organ for copulation and urination
Endometrium
Lining of the uterus. Varies in thickness during cycling and pregnancy
Body
The large, expandable hollow portion of the uterus
Gland cistern
Stores milk that has been produced in the alveoli
Milk Production
Horse has 2 glands and 2 nipples ~ Cow has 4 glands and 4 nipples ~ Dog has 8-10 glands and 8-10 nipples
Primary Oocyte
Each one will form one egg and three polar bodies
Amnion
Inner layer of placenta, contains fluid, closest to the fetus
Induced Ovulator
Must get bred to ovulate. Stimulation from breeding triggers release from pituitary. Cats, ferrets, rabbits and llamas
Glans
The tip, or the distal free end of the penis. Has a rich supply of sensory nerve endings to make it sensitive to physical stimulation
Foramen Ovale
Present in the right atrium in the fetus which sends most of the blood to the left atrium so it can bypass the lungs
Ovulation
Release of an egg from the ovary to be fertilized
Diffuse Placenta
Seen in horse and pig. Small villi of chorion attach to small cavaties (crypts) all over the uterine lining. The whole placenta contracts the uterus
Ovary
Paired. Found in caudo-dorsal abdomen near kidneys Produce hormones (estrogen and ova). Have a cortex and a medulla. Eggs are found in the cortex layer
Fetal Circulation
No direct contact with mothers. Diffusion of CO2 and O2 and nutrients across placenta
Scrotum
A sac made of skin, muscle, connective tissue and peritoneum
Testicular Artery and vein
Called the Pampininform plexus. Run with the ductus deferens and the cremaster muscle to form the spermatic cord
Vulva
External opening of the vagina
Menopause
Egg maturation and release stops
Urethral Process
Seen in the ram and buck goat. A small portion of the urethra that extends past the end of the glans penis. Very narrow and can be a site for uroliths to get stuck- can be snipped off
Testes
2 Functions. Make testosterone and make sperm. Found in the scrotum
Germ Cell
Oogonia
Milk Letdown
Stimulated by Oxytocin released when baby nurses
Zonary Placenta
Seen in dog and cat. Chorion attaches in a cylindrical band in the uterus. Marginal hematoma is present where green iron deposits are found around edges of placenta
Horns
Connect to the oviducts. Bring the egg down into the uterus after fertilization has taken place
Os Penis
Seen in the dog. A bone in the penis for additional support. Good location for uroliths to get stuck
Sertoli Cells
Help nourish the spermatids
Allantois
Middle layer of placenta, contains fluid
Cremaster Muscle
Muscle that pulls the scrotum closer to the body in cold temperatures and relaxes to let the testicles be farther away from the body in warmer weather
Involution
Period of healing for the uterus. Occurs over several weeks/months after delivery. May have lochia. 7-10 days for horses, 4-6 weeks for cows
Colostrum
First milk made after giving birth. High in antibodies
Pregnancy
Corpus Luteum persists and progesterone maintains it
Ductus Arteriosis
Blood which does make it to the right ventricle and gets pumped into the pulmonary artery gets sent across this to the aorta so it bypasses the lungs which are non-functional in the uterus
Spermatid
Each one of these will make 4 sperm cells
Root
Part of the penis that attaches it to the brim of the pelvis
Bulb of Glans
Seen in the male dog. Important in the locking procedure of the stud to the *****. Can last minutes to an hour
Formation of Sperm and Ova
Spermatogenesis and oogenesis. Begins at puberty
Seminiferous Tubules
Mass of tubules inside the testicle where sperm are produced
Vagina
Area for semen deposition, birth canal
Sigmoid Flexure
An s- shaped curve to the penis seen in the bull, pig and ram
Spontaneous Ovulator
Ovulates whether gets bred or not. Dog, horse, cow and most other species
Cotyledons
Protrusions from the chorion
Germ Cell
Spermatogonia
Inguinal Canal
Also called the ring. What testes pass through on their descent from inside the body to the scrotum
Clitoris
Small projection of erectile tissue like the penis
Urethral Orifice
At the ventral floor of the vagina
Cervix
Acts as a sphincter to separate uterus from vagina. Smooth muscle. Closed except during estrus and parturition
Ductus Deferens
The connecting tube between the epididymis and the urethra
Implantation
When the zygote uses enzymes to bury itself in the wall of the uterus

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