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Stress/Strain/Earthquakes

Terms

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the force
stress
the response -rock change
strain
shortening strain
compressive stress
stretching or extensional strain
tensional stress
shear strain
shear stress
Bends in Ductile rocks

-Compressive stress
-beds are folded
Plastic Stress
Breaks strain
-joint strains in limestone for ex: faults with movement
Brittle Stress
-Convergent late boundary
-Folding strain
-Reverse Fault-Strain
Compression stress
-Divergent Plate Boundary
-Normal Fault Strain (rift)
Tension stress
-Transform Plate Boundary
-Strike Slip Fault Strain
Shearing Stress
line of intersection of dipping bed with a horizontal plane.
-Orient to the North Compass director
Strike
the down dip direction
-always perpendicular to the strike line
Dip
angle from the horizontal plane
Angle of dip
-S and D "T" symbol
-Degree
Symbols on Geologic map
-Strains from Comression Stress
-Anticlines
-Synclines
-Monoclines
Folds
up folds
Anticlines
down folds
Synclines
sudden release of energry stored in rocks released as seismic waves
Earthquakes
-fault motion
-tectonic forces
Elastic Rebound Theory
Also associated with volcanic activity
Earthquakes
-Focus
-Epicenter
-Body Waves
-Surface waves
Seismic Waves
can pass through solids and fluids
Primary (P) Waves
-slower
-can pass through solids only
Seconday (S) Waves
-most damaging
-love waves
-Rayleigh waves
Surface Waves
seismograph, seismogram
seismometer
-Travel-time curves
-Depth of focus
Determining Location
-Log scale 0-9
-Magnitude increase by more!
Richter Scale
-P-wave shadow zone
-S-wave shadow zone
-Liquid Outer core
-solid inner core
The Core (Earth's Internal Structure)
-Ultramafic Rock
-Lithosphere
-Asthenosphere
-Lower mantle
The Mantle
Low Velocity Zone
Asthenosphere
Crust and uppermost mantle
Lithosphere
85% of quakes
Circum-Pacific Belt
Himalayan Belt
Mediterranean
Shallow Focus
Mid-oceanic ridge
shallow/too deep
-extend from trenches beneath continents or island arcs
Benioff zones
-intensity
-location and size of earthquakes in US
Measuring size of an earthquake
-I to XII (measures size of earthquake)
Modified Mercalli Scale

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