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Flashcards for the Final Mass Comm Test


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What are the driving forces behind developments in new media technologies?
entertainment needs as consumers seek higher quality media
What are two mass communication functions of entertainment, besides to entertain? P. 349
cultural transmission and mobilization

cultural transmission: primarily refers to the transference of the dominant culture as a function of mass communication, as well as its subcultures, from one generation to the next, or to immigrants. THis function includes socialization, which the media perform in helping persons learn society's rules, or how to fit into society

mobilization: a function of mass communication in which the media can influence the public, especially regarding political issues or movement
Which medium do children spend almost half their media consumption with? P. 350
Summarize television programming in the 1970s. P. 352-3
There was an introduction of more complex, realistic characters like All in the Family which addressed many social, gender, and civil rights issues that were happening in it would be almost unexceptable

In 1977 the miniseries Roots was aired based on the novel by Alex Haley...on January 30 one of its episodes became the 3rd most watched tv in history
What is the likely reason that quiz or game shows were very popular in the 1950s? P. 356
Because it was easy for the audience to identify with the contestants and the stakes were larger--by 1958 there were 22 network quiz shows
Prime time network programming is dominated by which type of programming? P. 357
dramatic series and situation comedies
Why are theaters unlikely to close completely despite lots of competition from other media outlets? P. 359
Because it is as much a social activity as it is a mass media entertainment activity
Who was the influential filmmaker who made films that were later remade as popular Westerns and who was
greatly admired by George Lucas? P. 361
Japenese director Akira Kurosawa
What is a likely reason that most movies derived from video games have NOT been great successes? P. 363-4
Because having a video game turned into a movie takes away its interactive nature and the fact that the user can somewhat control the story...those attributes are taken away from the movie goer
In 2001, what type of entertainment outranked box office sales for the first time? P. 365
Video games and hardware
What was Tin Pan Alley? P. 368
an area in Manhattan in New York on 28th Street and between Broadway and Sixth Avenue where music producers hung out. people bought music sheets for voice and piano to use at home. It became a generic reference to the music publishing business that hired composers and lyricists to write popular songs. continued until the 70s
In terms of music promotion, what had a large impact in changing how it was promoted? P. 353-54
What was a surprising third on the list in a report on children and media usage? P. 371
reading for fun
Why are entertainment ethics important to consider? P. 372
Because of the important role that entertainment plays in our lives...they have to be careful about the negative social values and harmful stereotypes that the media might contain
What happened as a result of Frederick Wertham's report on the effect of horror comics on children? P. 373-74
The public and media paid attention to watching the amount of graphic sexual and gruesome violent content of the comic books

There was an investigation in 1954 on the nature and effects of comics on kids...the senate never took any legal action in the case ...the Association of Comic Magazine Publishers came up with the Comics Code Authority and they began banning all sexual and violent content that was found in the comics
What are the reasons reality shows are so popular? P. 347
because it's intersting to watch someone else's life
Do children under eight years old spend more time with media than older children? P. 350
. Is it true that some shows on cable television have attracted larger viewing audiences than network shows? P. 354
Foreign box office sales make up how much of additional revenue for Hollywood movies? P. 359
Have DVDs reached a household market penetration faster than any other consumer electronics product? P. 365
Up to what percent of music videos on MTV have sexual imagery? P. 370
What phrase best characterizes book sales in recent years?
Book sales have had a mixed sales pattern since 1990
When two competing newspapers work together to merge their business departments it is called a...?
Joint operating Arrangment
What was an important change in newspapers brought about by the penny press?
Advertisements became an increasingly important source of revenue
A popular general interest magazine in the early and mid 20th century was called...?
A low budget, informally distributed publication that is often free is known as a...?
USA Today is best known for
adding strong graphics and visuals to newspapers
The first newspaper published in the United States is
Publick Occurrences (1690)
Books intended to be primarily for enjoyment can still be controversial because
they impart cultural values that readers may not agree with
One common trend for books has been
become smaller and cheaper
What is not a major trend in the book industry
Books are including more photography and illustrations
What is a problem with newspaper chains
Advertising rates rise
Local news gets squeezed out by wire service stories
Corporate owners put pressure to be profitable
What best describes the trends in newspaper ownership today
Newspapers are mostly owned by nationwide chains
What reason best describes why mass-distributed newspapers started in the 1830's
The invention of the steam-powered press meant that copies could be printed much more quickly than in the past
What is the largest circulation paper in the U.S.
The Wall Street Journal
The printing press had what effect
New ideas became more easily disseminated
What major function or functions do newspapers serve
legal record of public communication
coverage of local as opposed to national events
economic infrastructure for local businesses
The most basic function of magazines is
One of the aspects of mass market paperbacks that made them so popular is
They were small and inexpensive
What is a problem with magazines going online?
Readers tend to want to read small chunks of information online
The era of mass-distributed newspapers was started by who at the New York Sun?
Benjamin Day
Two of the top circulation magazines today target which demographics?
middle-aged and elderly
Mass market paperbacks were first introduced in
The seven leading women's magazines are called the
seven sisters
Which is the most important function of newspapers?
M.J. Rose's case with her novel Lip Service was unique because...
she used the internet and self-publishing to establish and audience for her book
What trend or trends adequately describe the newspaper industry
many cities have fewer newspapers than in years past
newspapers are experiencing drops in circulation
newspapers are using more color and graphics
What is likely the oldest book publishing cateragory?
religious books
How much of the cost in producing a newspaper actually goes into producing news (journalists saleries, etc.)
What is not a major newspaper chain
Universal Vivendi
What cateragory of publishing has the highest sales world wide?
trade books
Paperbacks are less expensive to produce, ship, and market than hardcover books
Printing was invented in Western Europe
The book industry is in serious decline because of the rise of the Internet
One way the magazines differ from newspapers is that they target a national as opposed to a local audience
Newspapers mostly consist of advertisements
The only purpose of textbooks, besides making students spend more money, is to impart knowledge
mass market paperback sales have dropped significantly compared to hardcover counterparts in recent years
Early newspapers used large sheets of paper in order to include illustrations and lithographs
The first time that consumers spent more on videos than books was 1998
What company was largely responsible in the 1990s for making direct-to-home satellite broadcasts more accessible to U.S. consumers?
What is the primary reason the FCC allocates electromagnetic spectrum>
because the electromagnetic spectrum is limited
What is the most widely available medium of mass communication worldwide?
The inventor of the phonograph was?
Thomas Edison
What is the primary logic for assigning radio station call letters either with W or K?
Stations east of the Mississippi River got W, those west of it recieved K
The inventor of radio telegraophy, also called wireless, was?
Guglielmo Marconi
A label typically gets how much profit in every CD sold?
The main recording industry trade group is called>
Music Recording Industry Association (MRIA)
A transparent filament, usually made of glass or plastic, that can caryry information in the form of light is called?
light-form cable
When was television unvelied to the public?
The Dempsey/Turney boxing match in 1923
an insulated and layered conducting wire about a half-inch think is called?
coaxial cable
File - sharing services do what regarding the recording industry?
threaten the labels' traditional music distribution channels

make everyone a potential distributor of music

cause artists to lose royalties because of lost sales
What was the primary motivation for developing cable TV?
Hilly terain and remoteness could interfere with broadcast TV
Artist and producer royalties for each CD sold are typically how much?
10 to 20 percent of the list price
What factor is part largely responsible for the convergence of telecommunication companies and cable companies?
deregualtion of cable companies and the 1996 Telecommunications Act
What was a major element in helping the widespread adoption of radio?
a popular boxing match broadcast by a radio station
Most television and computer displays use what type of display technology?
cathod-ray tube
The scientist who first demonstrated the existence of radio waves was?
Heinrich Hertz
Recent regulatory changes by the FCC have caused what for radio stations?
concentration of radio station ownership by large media companies
Which is a potential result of music being offered entirely digitally?
Consumers would pay less for music because there is no physical product
What is a primary reason for the decline of the networks from the 1980s?
the growth of cable television and competition in programming that came with it
Fox television is owned by>?
Rupert Murdoch
What continues to be a major obstacle for DS?
their inability to include local programming
In the future, digital transmission of radi will make it more like _________ than traditional radio
audio programming
The first radio inventors were able to transmit the human voice
Even with the growing popularity of cable and satellite TV, most people continue to get TV through over-the-air broadcasts
Beeswax cylinders were and improvement over tinfoil cylinders that had been used to record sound
the recorded music industry is unique among media industries in that small, independent companies dominate
More U.S. households have television sets than telephones
Despite other forms of media and the rise of the Internet, people still spend more time wathcing the televison than with any other medium
a process in which the machines or computer programs do the work that was formerly done by humans is called
Creating content and selling it to other media outlets is known as
What is a negative aspect of nonstop media?
information overload
Why must online-only radio stations pay royalities for the songs they play but traditional radio stations do not?
traditional radio stations argued that they help promote music
HTML stands for
hypertext markup language
One of the largest Internet companies that most resembles a traditional media company is?
A hypertext link to another Web site's inside page or pages is called?
deep linking
What was a primary reason that the Internet did NOT reach a widespread audience right away>
Arcane commands to type made it difficult for non-technical people
Microsoft has partnered with which network to create a news channel?
What is a primary reason that the music industry is threatened by online music?
the music industry loses conrol over distribution of its product
WHat is a likely problem regarding the future of the online music?
finding new songs and artists you may like may be more difficult without help form technology
Why might long-form text narratives be at a disadvantage in an online enviroment?
people online tend to have shorter attention spans and use hyperlinks to click to other Web sites to get information when they want
What percentage of online newspaper Web sites show up as the top 20 news Web sites, according to Editor &Publisher
50 percent
What is an important element in making digital nedia transformative?
When were the foundations of the current Internet laid?
in 1969, with the creation of ARPANet
The dominant Web browser today is?
Internet Explorer
Like traditional media counterparts, advertising has proved to be a successful business model on the Internet
After the dot com bubble burst in 2000, existing online media companies found ways to become profitable
Online radio stations must abide by the Digital Millenium Copyright Act
Online versions of newspapers are NOT seen as major sources of news by the public
the recording indusrty has taken a leading role in developing digital sales and distribution of music
What is not a component of storage technologies?
What component of storage technology has been scarificed the most with improvements in technolgy?
The storage technology truly revolutionary with digital media compared to its analog counterparts is?
What is a type of medium created as a random access memory device?
phone book
An important development in being able to record sound was?
magnetic recording
What was the event that finally convinced NBC to convert to videotape for news bradcasts
the assassination attempt on President Ford
The first type of storage devices for compouters were?
punched cards
The first example of optical storage device was the?
A single CD-ROM can store________ pages of text?
DVD stands for?
digital versatile disk
What statement or statements best describe the characteristics of DVDs?
DVDs allow for multilingual capabilities

DVDs have better visual and sound quality than videotypes

DVDs can store far more information than CD-ROMs
What is one reason it is necessary to compress digital media?
the "pipes" that transport data to computers are still far too narrow to send large amounts of data easily
What does MPEG stand for?
Motion Pictures Expert Group
What is one of the problems with current search engines?
their searches do not encompass the entire Web
Comumbia Newsletter, which uses natural language processing is an example of?
automated news summarizing
CDs hold the greatest amount of digital information compared to other portable storage formats
a gigatbyte contains 2,000 times more information than a kilobyte
CD-ROMs can store information for a much longer time than printed books can
Atype of recording that involves placing tiny iron-based magnetic particles in substrate such as a plastic film is called?
magnetic recording
Eight bits of data is called a
the practice of putting advertisers goods directly into shows for money is called?
product placememtn
Ultra-small technology that is currently in the early stages of development but that holds great promise for changing our world is called?
What is an important difference in terms of our media usage regarding computers?
computers allow the user to interact with and change their media enviroment
Why is the issue of user interface important to mass communication?
it gives access to the huge content on the Internet and can make audiences more active in getting content
What media was important in the development of the modern user interface?
radio and television
What is an important element that has affected many design and user interface choices for computers?
the aspect ratio of computer monitors is the same as that of TV screens
The most efficient keyboard, which is not widely used is called?
Dvorak keyboard
What is a benefit of the keyboard over other types of input such as voice?
the keyboard allows for private input of inforamtion
What is a primary benefit of a touch-sensitive screen?
it simplifies the human-computer interaction
What is a potential drawback of speech - recognition systems?
they will be difficult to use in a public settings with everyone talking
What probably had the greatest impact in changing the public's behavoir and attitude towards computers?
the GUI
What is a drawback with using icons to represent items on a computer screen?
people not familiar with the real - world counterparts won't easily understand their functions
What role did user interfaces have in the microsoft trial in 1998?
Microsoft was accused of unfairly favoring the IE browser by bundling it with the Microsoft system
Who developed HDTV?
Why is digital TV more important for mass communication than HDTV?
digital TV enables the convergence of computing, television and telecommunications
Why do 3D visualizations of objects present unique user interface challenges?
there are new task-based requirements, such as being able to pick up objects
The knowledge to use various types of media technologies such as books is learned
television played a role in preparing the public mentally for interacting with computers
when the GUI was first introduced many computer users felt it dumbed down computer use and refused to use it
PCs and TVs will eventually merge into one device
although nice in theory, digital television is still technically not possible
A fundamental characteristic of digital distribution is that it?
is made of electrons and bits, not physical materials
With P2P networks, the audience essentially acts as a media?
What was the first technology that could transform information into electronic form and transmit it over great distances?
the telegraph
What is the type of switching that occurs within a network in whcih information is divided into pieces, transported as individual units, and then reassembled at the destination called?
packet switching
In what way have communication satellites substantially upgraded mediated communication?
they allow for ground based communication in remote parts of the world
What was the major reason that fiber optics took so long to be used?
sending light long distances without the signal degrading was difficult to overcome
The internet, for various technical reasons, eventually developed into which tyoe of network model?
The law states "the value of a network rises in proportion to the square of the number of the people on that network" is called?
Metcalfe's Law
The program that helped put file sharing services in the news was called?
Why might other file-sharing services be harder to shut down than Napster?
there are no central servers that hold databases of available songs on the network
A cateragory for discussion groups within Usernet is called a ?
A member of a discussion board who does not post messages but reads what others write is called a?
How do chat rooms differ from instant messaging?
chat rooms usually involve a group of people where instant messageing involves mostly one to one communication
What accounts for most Internet traffic today?
Why is spam likely to continue?
costs are extremely low
Why do some experts say it is useless to creat digital distribution systems that ensure complete security?
because whenever a new secure technology is developed, it is quickly cracked
What idea espoused by Marshall McLuhan does the Internet seem to promise to deliver?
the world will become a global village
Napster's closing largely settled the legal and copying issues the record labels face
a drawback with P2P networks is that they cannot build instant messaging systems
Although email is convient for one to one communication, there is no way for individuals to "broadcast" their own messages to large numbers of people
WHat is an often heard complaint about news coverage of negative events such as crimes or accidents?
heavy negative coverage gives a misleading impression that the world is more dangerous thatn it is
A press conference or planned rally or march is what historian Daniel Boorstin calls a ________,as it is designed to attract media attention
psuedo event
One of the oldest and largest news-gathering operations is
Associated Press
A noted newspaper publisher who owned the St. Louis-Dispatch and New York World and who bequeathed money to satrt the Columbia University School of Journalism was
Joseph Pulitzer
A noted newspaper publisher who owned the New York Morning Journal, was a politician, and who was immortalized in the movie Citizen Kane was
William Randolph Hearst
The Golden Age of newspapers ended when
radio became a medium for mass communication in the 1920s
The goal of objectivity in bews coverage has largely been abandoned today for what reason or reasons?
It is not possible to ever be truly objective in covering situations and events
How do most news organizations plan their new coverage for the following day?
editiors look at the AP daybook to decide what upcoming events are newworthy
At newspapers, who decides where stories are placed on the pages?
Which is a type of journalism that breaks from journalism tradition?
literary journalism
Writing in your diary is an example of?
intrapersonal communication
What is not a characteristic of mass communication?
it uses technologies to transmit messages to the audience
What is a weakness in the survelliance function of mass communication?
too much coverage of disastors and crime can skew the public's perception of what is normal
What is one problem with the cultural transmission function of mass communication?
it spreads a homogenizing cultural influence
The term bit stands for
binary digit
What is an example of digital medi>
Combining text, images, sound, and video is an example of?
What is not an aspect of interactivity?
users can send their message to a large number of people
What is a problem with digitization?
privacy can be eroded through tracking people's behavoir online
In an online enviroment, content becomes?
more fluid, dynamic, rapid and global
Intelligent software agents tht record and track vistiors to a website are called?
Peer to peer file sharing programs mainly do what?
make it easy for individuals to distribute and share files to a large audience
Media fragmentation means?
audiences become smaller as the public has more media choices based on their specific interests
A benefit of personalized and localized news is?
better contextualization of news events for the public
The concentration of media ownership into the hands of few, very large media companies is called?
an oligopoly
In a digital media world, journalism will change in what ways?
There will be less division between electronic and print journalists

journalists will on work non-stop news cycles with continous deadlines

journalists will have to work extra hard to make sure they are credible
One reason people may trust online news sources is because?
many of the online news sources are from traditional media parent companies
What practices from traditional publishing have news Web sites tended to drop?
publishing once a day at a set time
The person who broke the President Clinton-Monica Lewinsky scandal on their website is named?
Matt Drudge
Interpersonal communication always takes place in an unmediated enviroment
mediated communication refers only to electronic communication such as TV, radio, or the Internet
entertainment media can entertain and transmit cultural lvalues
James Carey is a leading communications scholar who adopts a cultural view of communication
multimedia only exists in a digital enviroment
computers can only understand "on" or off states of information, represented by 1s and 0s
as the troubles with AOL Time Warner show, convergence is mainly a passing fad among media organizations
convergence brings an increase in media consumption by the public
on the web, anyone can publish stories and act as a journalsit
Live television or radio are examples of what kind of media?
The _____ function refers to interpreting aspects of society
The coming together of computers, media, and telecommunications is known as
The online equivalent o word-of-mouth advertising is called
viral marketing
What is an example of media literacy
knowing how to open an email attachment

reading a book

expecting something dramatic to happen in a movie when the music changes
Subtext can be defined as
the underlying or implicit message that is being sent by a piece of media content
In the 1960s, some people didn't understand the show _______ was actually fiction
Gilligan's Island
The personalization freatures of the Web amplify
media fragmentation
One of the ways to evaluate if an online sources is trustworthy or not is to?
see if the source is part of a website with an established brand name
There is greater diversity in programming and media channels for which of the following reasons?
the growth of cable and satellite television
The large media audiences for big sporting events such as the Olympics or dramatic news like the World Trade Center terrorist attacks show that?
mass audiences still do gather and share common news
Corporate decisions affect media content in what ways?
pressure from advertisers who threaten to withdraw advertising

budget cutbacks that reduce the numbers of reporters who can cover a beat

complaints from customers who cancel subscriptions
The type of media in which commercial factors are most easily seen as
The Hallmark Channel is an example of
corporate sponsership
As of 2003, the largest media merger was
the purchase of Time Warner by AOL
"Do unto others as you would have them do unto you" is an example of
the Golden Rule
The decrease in unit manufactoring costs that result from mass production is called
economies of scale
In the United States ________ of the 1500 daily newspapers are the only dailies in their cities
99 percent
The largest global media company is
AOL Time Warner
Avoiding extremes of actions or behavoir is an example of
the Golden Mean
The philosopher who came up with the Cateragorical Imperitive was
Immanuel Kant
Publishing the names of drunk driving offenders unless they are friends or associates of the publisher is an example of not following what ethical principle
the Cateragorical Imperitive
Scientific research on animals or humans to help find cures for diseases is an example of what ethical principle?
the principle of utility
Asking participants to ignore their vested interests and to stake out basic positions on an issue as if they did not know what the outcome would mean for them is an example of what ethical principle?
the veil of ignorance
What is the most common way that advertisers may affect coverage?
pulling ads or threatening to pull ads when a newspaper takes an unpopular editiorial stance
The case of NBC's "Waiting to Explode" news segment in 1992 is an example of
the type fo media influencing what kind of content needed to be created
Developing media literacy skills is a process, not a goal
Because reality TV is unscripted, they contain no subject
for-profit media models that rely on making money in the commercial marketplace is the most common
commercial television is not actually free since consumers pay for the costs of advertising through higher-priced goods
In the United States, a large portion of funding for public broadcasting comes from corporate sponsers
what is legal what is ethical, and vice versa
A box with a small hole in it that could show inverted oustide screens is called?
camera obscura
What is a serious drawback of the daguerreotype?
copies could not be made
What are some of the benfits of digital photography?
cameras are more compact than traditional cameras

no film developing costs

photographers can delete and change photos on the spot
The primary function of movies is?
Who invented the Cinematographe, the first movie projector that could show movies to more than one person?
Auguste and Louis Lumiere
What was an advantage of silent films over talkies?
they easily crossed language barriers
The first full-length motion picture was
Birth of a Nation
The first successful commercial talkie film was?
the Jazz Singer

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