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Animal Health 13


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What two forms may antibiotics be?
1. Bacteriocidal (kill bacteria)
2. Bacteriostatic (inhibit bacterial growth)
What is one (of two)mechanisms of action that antibiotics can do? (the bacteriocidal approach)
1. Inhibition or disruption of bacterial cell wall synthesis (penicillin, ampicillin, cephalosporins: bacteriocidals)
What is the other mechanisms of action that antibiotics can do? (May be bacteriostatic or bacteriocidal approach)
inhibit or interference w/protein synthesis (tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, aminoglycosides, trimethoprim-sulfonamides, etc)
What are Anti-Inflammatories used for (I know, this is a toughy)
To suppress or reduce inflammatory response
What are the two types of Anti-inflammatories we'll discuss?
1. Non-Steroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDS)
2. Corticosteroids (glucocorticoids)
What do NSAIDS do?
-block some part of cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway, suppressing the synthesis of several chemical mediators of inflammation, especially prostaglandins
Why are NSAIDS (aka COX inhibitors) problematic to the animal?
-they block the COX pathway in tissues in the stomach. The prostaglandins in stomach protect it, if the COX1 inhibites prostaglandin production (via the COX pathway), ulcers can form
COX1 inhibitor causes stomach alcers because of its lack of specificity, what does COX2 (celebrex)inhibitor do?
Function only intissue areas of inflammation and not in the stomach so GI complications are much reduced
NSAIDS markedly reduces what?
prostaglandin dependent heat, swelling, edema, erythema and pain
Due to what NSAIDS markedly reduce, they are thereby what?
Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiendotoxic, antipyretic and antithrombotic
What are the toxic effects of NSAIDS?
1. gastrointestinal toxicity (irritation; ulceration)
2. Renal toxicity
3. local irritation
4. blood dyscrasias
What are some examples of NSAIDS?
1. phenylbutazone (1950)
2. banamine
3. aspirin (1897)
4. dipyrone
5. naproxen
Corticosteroids (glucocorticoids) act on what level of the organism?
What are 5 things Corticosteroids do in the cell?
1. maintain and stabilize integrity of cell, lysosomal, mitochondrial membranes
2. Maintain microciculation
3. stablilize capillary permeability
4. modify cellular response to histamine release
5. alter cell DNA/RNA to produce new proteins tt may decrease inflamm. enzyme (ex: prostoglandin)
Corticosteroids also decreases four things; what are they?
1. complement
2. lymphokines
3. chemotaxiz
4. phagocytosis by macrophages
What are 5 toxic/undesirable effects of Corticosteroids?
1. poor wound healing
2. inhibition of bone growth and calcification
3. reduction in circulating eosinophils & lymphocytes (immunosuppression)
4. adrenal gland suppression
5. electrolyte imbalances
In Corticosteroids, what are the electrolyte imbalances?
1. Na retention
2. K excretion
3. edema
What is iatrogenic Cushings disease (I think he forgot a letter in the first part of name)
1. Muscle wasting
2. Skin atrophy
3. Alopecia
4. Polyuria/polydipsia (PU/PD)
5. Osteoporosis
What are some examples of medicines containing Corticosteroids?
1. dexamethasone
2. betamethasone
4. hydrocortisone
5. triamicinalone
6. methylprednisolone
Anti-Cancer (cytotoxic) drugs for animals are becoming rare or common place? They are all adapted from what?
Becoming common place. Adapted from human medicine
What are Anti-Cancer drugs used primarily for?
The treatment of lympho and myeloproliferative diseases (leukemias)and as an adjunct to surgical &/or radiation treatment of malignant tumors w/high risk of metastasis(ex:osteosarcoma)
What is the mechanism of action of Anti-Cancer drugs?
1. interfere w/replication &/or synthesis of RNA/DNA
2.Interfere w/cell division
3. Most effective against rapidly growing or dividing cells (whether they are neoplastic of not)
What are the toxicity/side effects of Anti-Cancer drugs?
1. Organ systems containing a high # of dividing cells are most susceptible
2. Bone marrow: immunosuppression & anemia
3. Gastrointestinal system: anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, wt. loss

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