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Micro Overview


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Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC)
most common cause of UTI's - use fimbrae to adhere
Staphylococcus saprophyticus
2nd most common cause of UTI's - no fimbrae
Gardnerella vaginalis
cause BV - treat w/ metronidazole
Mycoplasma hominis
cause BV - treat w/ metronidazole
lots of different kinds, do the EB RB thing - treat w/ Doxycycline and azithromycin (must penetrate host cell)
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
causes gonorrhoeae (urethritis, cervicitis, PID) - treat w/ ceftriaxone or ciprofloxacin
Neisseria meningitidis
dorm meningitis - Key signs are petechial rash and purpura fulminans - treat w/ penicillin, or cefotaxime or ceftriaxone - treat - give rifampcin to contacts
Treponema pallidum
syhpallis - chancers! - treat w/ pennicilin or ---cyclins if res
legionella pneumophilia
contaminated water, damage to lungs from inflam - only really in people who smoke or have lung damage - treat w/ erythromycin
mycoplasma pnemonia
walking pnemonia (no alveoli) - treat w/ erythromycin
Mycobacteria tuberculosis
tuberculosis - treat w/ 6-8 months of multi-drug therapy and DOTS
Mycobacteria leprae
leprosy - gets skin and nerves - treat w/ multi-drug therapy (dapsone, rifampcin and clofazimine)
streptococcus pneumoniae
does bacterial meningitis an pnemonia - treat w/ MDR and OM treament - a hemo - anti P and pneumolysin do virulence
streptococcus pyogens
rheumatic fever, TSS, glomeulonephritis - GAS - regular step in kids - M protein does virulence
streptococcus agalactiae
in pregnant women, give them Abs peripartum - may cause low mortality meningitis - diabetes is a problem too - C5a and cytolysin virulence
streptococcus viridans
brain, lung, liver abscesses
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
leading nosocimial (pnemonia, UTIs, burn infections) - problem w/ CF pts - hard to treat b/c of MDR and biofilms
staphylococcus aureus
superficial, invasive, or superantigen - oxacillin res from PBP2a - hard to treat, but right now trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and clindamycin work
Haemophilus influenzae
causes meningitis, epiblottitis, and OM - type b is bad! - good conjugate vaccine - didn't tell us treatment
Bordetella pertussis
whooping cough - pertussis toxin stimulates cAMP in neutrophils - no good vaccines
salmonella - typhiod fever
iingested, get RES - big in bowel and cause ulceration and proliferation - from other countries - treat w/ Abs
salmonella - gastrentiritis
from contaminated food -> mild to sever diarrhea - Abs only if severe
salmonella - septicema
high fever and bacteremia - increase risk if AIDS - use Abs
mild diarrhea painful, bloody, mucous dysentary - from poor hygine - its toxin cleaves 28S - treat w/ Abs for sever cases only
Campylobacter jejuni
main cause of gastrentiritis - mild diarrhea painful, bloody, mucous dysentary - treat w/ erythrmycin
Yersinia enterocolitica
acute watery diahhrea - mesenteric lympadenitis (like appendicitis) - mostly in kids under 5
Listeria monocytogenes
from contaminated food - pregnant and neonates at greater risk - lysteriolysin O is big
Francisella tularensis
requires cytosine - not big in US - ulcer -> LNs - gets RES - fever up to 6 wks
painless, watery diarrhea - toxin adheres to GI and increases CAMP - Ab maybe useful, but fluid is best
Helicobactur pylori
peptic ulcer disease - risk factore for gastic cancer - treat w/ Abs and pepto
Bacillus anthracis
- from handeling sheep and goat hair and hides - Edema factor - treat w/ Penicillin G - ciprofloxacin and tetracycline work
ds DNA virus - pathogenic rash begins at head and upper arms and moves distally - high fever, headache - cant treat
Enveloped RNA coronavirus - fever, dry cough - chest x-rays look like penmonia - spread by jet travel
Rickettsia rickettsii
rockey mountain spotted fever - gets vascular endothelial cells - Chills, fever, headache, petechal rash - treat w/ tetracycline
Ehrlichia chaffeensis
tick borne - nonspecific fever, malaise, myalgia, headache - infects monocytes
Anaplasma phagocytophila
tick borne - nonspecific fever, malaise, myalgia, headache - infects neutrophils
Borrelia burgdorferi
causes lyme disease - stage 1 “erythema migrans” rash at bite, fever, chills, muscle ache and fatigue - stage 2 arthritis NS and heart affected - Stage 3, chronic arthritis and CNS disease
Epidermophyton, Trichophyton, and Microsporum - infect hair and skin
Sporothrix schenckii
dimorphic fungus associated with thorns and sphagnum moss - begins as painless papules -> ascend along lymphatic channels
Coccidioides immitis
valley fever in arid climates - flu-like, high fevers - in old people - treat w/ fluconazole
Histoplasma capsulatum
fungal from bird poop - tuberculated macroconidia - flu-like, high fever, cough - only treat immpunosuppressed w/ Itraconazole
Blastomyces dermatitidis
fungal from rotting organic matter - blastomycosis - can form pulmonary granulomas
Candida albicans
main hospital fungus - microflora of skin - treat w/ topicals for cutaneous - amphotericin B or fluconazole for invasive
Cryptococcus neoformans
bird poop yeast - major fungal cause of meningitis - treat w/ amphotericin B and 5-fluorocytosine - fluconazole in AIDS (life long)
molds that produce septate hyphae - 45° dichotomous branching - treat allergic w/ steroids, invasive w/ amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole - caspofungin $$$
fungus - broad, aseptate hyphae with right angle branching - bad w/ immunosuppressed or diabetic - treat w/ debridement and amphotericin B
Pneumocystis carinii
fungal atypical pnemonia - SOB, drug cough, and fever - treat w/ trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole and pentamidine isothionate

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