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Pharm T4


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What are some problems associated with the GI tract?
Regurgitation, vomiting, diarrhea, weight loss, colic, bloat and abnormal bowel movements.
What does the Autonomic nervous system (ANS) do to regulate the GI tract?
Increases intestinal motility, tone, increases secretions and stimulates relaxation of sphincter when the parasympathetic portion of the ANS is stimulated.
What are cholinergic drugs?
Drugs that minic the autonomic nervous system.
What are anticholinergic drugs?
Drugs that inhibit the reaction of the autonomic nervous system.
What happens when the sympathetic brance of the ANS is stimulated?
There will be decreased intestinal motility, tone, secretions and increased anal sphincter tone.
What do hormones do to help regulate the GI tract?
Gastrin, secretin and cholecystokinin are released from intestinal cells and control many functions such as gastric secretions, gastric and gall bladder emptying.
What does histamine do to help regulate the GI tract?
Histamine, serotinin and prostaglandins are released from specialized GI cells and histamine attaches to H2 receptors in gastric parietal cells and causes the release of hydrocholoric acid in the stomach.
What is the definition of vomiting?
Forced expulsion of stomach contents.
Where is vomiting initiated from?
From the stimulation or activation of the emectic (vomiting) center of the brain.
Where is the emetic center located?
In the medulla oblongata.
What animals do not vomit?
Horses, rabbits and rats.
What is the definition of regurgitation?
A normal process of ruminants in which semi-digested material from the rumen is "cast up" or chewing.
What animals normally regurgitate "castings"?
Many birds - owls and raptors.
What do emetics do?
They cause vomiting.
Why would you use an emetic?
To remove recently ingested poisons.
To empty stomach prios to anesthesia.
They can remove appoximately 80% of stomach contents.
Contraindication of emetics.
Semi-conscious or seizuring animals.
Animals in shock or having difficulty breathing.
Ingestion of caustic substances (acidic or alkaline).
Animals that don't normally vomit.
What are the two types of emetics?
Centrally acting emetics (CNS) and locally acting emetics.
Types of centrally acting emetics.
Morphine, apormorphine HCL, xylazine (Rompun (R)), syrup of ipecac.
What is the centrally acting emetic drug of choice for dogs?
apomorphine HCL
How is apomorphine HCL administered?
Topically in the conjunctival sac or given parenterally.
What's the centrally acting emetic choice for cats?
xylazine (Rompun(R))
What centrally acting emetic is not classified as an emetic, but will produce vomiting?
xylazine (Rompun(R))
What's the trade name for xylazine?
Rompum (R)
How do locally acting emetics work?
They irritate the gastric/pharyngeal mucosa, causing reflex vomiting.
What are some locally acting emetics?
Hydrogen peroxide, salt water (warm), syrup of ipecac.
What are some side effects to syrup of ipecac?
Lacrimation (tearing) and salivation and cardiotoxicity in high doses. Use with caution in animals with heart problems.
What emetic is both centrally and locally acting?
syrup of ipecac
What are antiemetics?
They prevent vomiting.
What do you use antiemetics for?
To prevent motion sickness.
to prevent vomiting while under anesthesia.
To prevent post-op vomiting.
To treat symptoms of persistant vomiting.
What are the two classifications of antiemetics?
Centrally and locally acting.
What are the different types of centrally acting antiemetics?
Phenothiazine derivatives, procainimide derivatives, metoclopramide, antihistamines.
What are phenothiazine derivative used for?
Motion sickness.
List the different types of phenothiazine derivatives.
tranquilizer (Acepromazine (R))
chlorpromazine (Thorazine (R))
prochlorperazine (Darbazine (R))
Trade name for tranquilizer.
Acepromazine (R)
Trade name for chlorpromazine.
Thorazine (R)
Trade name for prochlorperazine.
Darbazine (R)
What are procainimide derivative used for?
What is metoclopramide used for?
The drug causes increase gastric contraction, emptying and strengthens cardia sphincter tone. It's a stomach dumper.
Trade name for metoclopramid.
Reglan (R)
What are antihistamines used for (as an antiemetic)?
When vomiting is due to motion sickness or inner ear problems.
What are two antihistamines used as antiemetics?
Benadryl (R), Dramamine (R)
What do you use locally acting antiemetic used for?
Vomiting caused by gastric irritation. It goes to the stomach to quiet it down.
What do locally acting antiemetics contain?
Local anesthetics, antacids and protectants.
If a proctectant contains magnesium what should it not be given with?
Tetracycline, dogoxin, corticosteroids and ketaconzole.
List some examples of protectants.
Maaloz (R), Mylanta (R), Milk of Magnesia (R), Pepto Bismol (R), Kaopectate (R).
What are some things that can cause diarrhea?
Parasites, viruses, bacteria, toxins, neoplasia.
What supportive care would you give to an animal with diarrhea?
A bland diet and fluid therapy if needed.
What happens to the GI tract when diarrhea occcurs?
Hypersecretion of intestinal fliud/exudates and increased permeability.
Osmotic retention of water and overload.
Intestional hypomotility.
What's one of the most common reasons for the occurance of diarrhea?
Intestinal hypomotility.
What is hypomotility?
Fluid is not well absorbed. This is because hypomotility causes the lumen diameter to increase and allows for faster passage of contents.
What two drugs should be used with caution for treating diarrhea?
Anticholinergics and antispasmodics.
What do most vets consider the drug of choice for the control of diarrhea in dogs?
What are the four types of antidiarrheal drugs?
Narcotic analgesic, anticholinergics/antispasmodics, antibiotics, protectants.
What do narcotic analgesic drugs do?
They decrease intestinal secretions, motility and intestinal absorption. They take care of the cause of diarrhea.
Two types of narcotic analgesics.
Lomotil (R), Immodium (R)
What is combined with Lomotil (R) and why?
Atropine, to discourage abuse.
Which antidiarrheal drugs should be used with caution?
anticholinergics/antispasmodics. They may contain a CNS suppressant. You need to be sure of what is causing the diarrhea.
List three antibiotics that are used as antidiarrheals.
Aminiglycosides (Neomycin, kanamycin), cephalosporins, metronidazole (Flagyl (R)).
When would you use an aminoglycoside as an antidiarrheal?
When there is bloody diarrhea or signs of sepsis along with diarrhea. Problems is that they're not absorbed well in the GI tract (kills the good bacteria also).
What are some side effects of metronidazole (Flagyl (R))?
Anorexia, hepatotoxicity, neutropenia dn neurotoxocity.
Trade name for metronidazole.
Flagyl (R)
What is metronidazole (Flagyl (R)) mainly used for?
Treating giardia and anaerobic infections in dogs and cats.
What is helocobacter?
It causes gastric ulcers.
What are two types of protectants?
Kaopectate (R), Pepto-bismol (R).
What protectant converts to aspirin in the body and should be used with caution in cats?
Pepto-bismol (R).
What drugs are used the alter the pH?
antacids, acidifiers and cinetidine (Tagamet (R)).
What do antacids do?
They neutralize gastric HCL or increase the pH of the stomach.
What do acidifiers do?
They decrease the pH of gastric or rumen contents. Mostly used in LA, vinegar is used to treat urea and high protein toxicity in ruminants.
What does cimetidine (Tagamet (R)) do?
It's a H2 blocker (H2 receptors produce acid). It decreases acid production.
Trade name for cimetidine.
Tagamet (R)
What are the two types of protectives?
Demulcents and absorbents.
What do demulcents do?
They form a protective layer of the GI mucosa and protect inflamed mucosa from further irritation.
List three types of demulcents.
Pepto-bismol (R), Kaopectate (R), corrective mixture.
What two categories do Pepto-bismol (R) and Kaopectate (R) fall into?
Protectants and protectives (demulcents).
What do absorbents do?
They absorb or bind up harmful toxins or chemical and prevents absorption in the GI tract.
List an absorbent.
activated charcoal (SuperChar (R)).
Trade name for activated charcoal.
SuperChar (R)
What do digestive enzymes do?
They aid digestion and absorption.
What would you use digestive enzymes for?
To treat pancreatic exocrine insufficiency.
What should you be careful about when using disgestive enzymes (powdered form)?
Remove from skin immediates (it will breakdown proteins on the skin) and it can cause nasal irritation and possibly an asthma attack if inhaled.
Two types of pancreatic products.
Viokase-V (R), Pancreatin (R).
What are rumen function drugs used for?
To treat rumen atony.
To restore normal rumen flora.
To treat bloat.
What is neostigmine used for?
To stimulate peristalsis. (to treat rumen atony)
What is Probiocin (R) used for?
In calved that are on antibiotic treatment.
What is Therabloat (R) used for?
To treat frothy bloat. Cause the tiny bubbles in the rumen to break down and allow the gas to be excreted.
What is eructation?
What are cathartics used for?
To stimulate or foster defecation/assist defecation.
What's another word for cathartic?
When would you use a cathartic?
1.certain oral poisonings. 2.emptying the colon prior to x-ray or surgery. 3.remove fecal impactions. 4.certain cases of equine colic. 5.used with certain anthelmintics
What are the three types of cathartics?
Stool softeners.
What do bulk cathartics do?
They stimulate defecation by increasing the volume of the colon contents.
What make up bulk cathartics?
They are usually forms of indigestible plant material. They absorb water and swell in the colon.
What are some examples of bulk cathartics?
Equine psyllium, Metamucil (R), bran mash (often used in horses).
What do lubricant cathartics do?
They are typically oil products that soften the fecal material and make it easier to move through the GI tract.
What are lubricant cathartics used for?
For constipation and fecal impactions. Used on cats alot.
List some examples of lubricant cathartics.
Laxatone (R), Kat-a-lax (R), Felaxin (R).
What are stool softeners used for?
For the treatment of hard, dry feces in small animals, impactions in horses and digestive upsets in cattle. Surfactant allows water to penetrate impacted stool.
List some examples of stool softeners.
Colase (R), Surfak (R).
List some drugs that are used as appetite stimulants.
Diazepam/oxazepam (Valium (R)) and B-vitamins.
What appetite stimulant works well, almost immediately, in cats?
Stimulation os which part of the automomic nervous sytem would increase GI motility, tone, scretion, and relax sphincters?
What family of drugs inhibit the stimulation of the parasympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system?
What centrally actin emetic has a unique route of administration?
apormorphine - topical, subconjunctival sac.
What are some locally acting emetics you may have at home?
Hydrogen peroxide, warm salt water, syrup of Ipecac.
What centrally acting antiemetic should not be used in the case of GI obstruction?
metoclopramide (Reglan (R)).
What is the advantage of ranitidine ove cimetidine?
BID vs. 3-4 times a day - less side effects.
What pH altering durgs have the side effect of constipation and ileus?
What drug works in an acid environment and forma a "gastric bandaid" over the surface of an ulcer?
What GI drugs would be used for colitis?
What protectant is used to bind harmful toxins?
Activated charcoal.
What's the difference between a demulcent and an adsorbent?
Adsorbents absorb and a demulcent makes a patch/cover.
What is viokase?
A pancreatic enzyme.
What drugs empties the stomach?
Reglan (R)
What type of laxative is Metamucil (R)?
What type of laxative is Laxatone (R)?
What type of laxative is Lactulose (R)?
What type of laxative is DSS?
What GI prokinetic or stimulant is only available through a compounding pharmacy?
What GI prokinetic or stimulant is also an antiemetic?
What antibiotic is also used as an antidiarrheal?

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