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Anti-Infectives and Side Effects

Terms

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Quinolone
broad-spectrum antibiotics. The parent of the group is nalidixic acid. Now there's subset with fluoro group. Inhibit the bacterial DNA gyrase or the topoisomerase IV enzyme, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and transcription.
AmphotericinB
polyene antifungal drug, often used intravenously for systemic fungal infections. Also oral for thrush.
Oxacillin
narrow spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic of the penicillin class. Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infection.
Ketoconazole
antifungal drug used in immunocompromised.Sold also as an anti-dandruff shampoo.Very lipophilic, accumulation in fatty tissues. fluconazole and itraconazole have largely replaced it for internal use. Best absorbed at highly acidic levels, so antacids lower the drug's absorption when taken orally.
Minocycline
Vestibular.sensitivity to sunlight.
Minocycline
broad spectrum tetracycline antibiotics, used to treat acne and other skin infections as well as lyme disease as the one pill twice daily 100 mg dosage is far easier for patients than the four times a day required with tetracycline or oxytetracycline
Vancomycin
Red neck syndrome, hypotension, ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity and phlebitis
Zidovudine
or azidothymidine (AZT), antiretroviral drug, the first approved for treatment of HIV. It is also sold under the names Retrovir and Retrovis.
Acyclovir
herpes simplex virus infections, as well as in the treatment of herpes zoster (shingles).
Clindamycin
side effect is Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (the most frequent cause of pseudomembranous colitis).
Chloramphenicol
main use is in eye drops or ointment for bacterial conjunctivitis. Inhibits bacterial protein synthesis, has a very broad spectrum of activity: Gram-positive bacteria (including most strains of MRSA), Gram-negative bacteria and anaerobes. Excellent CSF penetration (far superior to any of the cephalosporins) first choice treatment staphylococcal brain abscesses. Also active against the three main bacterial causes of meningitis: Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae
Nafcillin
Neutropenia
Ganciclovir
antiviral medication used to treat or prevent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections
Zidovudine
Anemia and neutropenia.
Foscamet
Nephrotoxicity, anemia, mineral and electrolyte loss.
Tetracycline
Teeth/bone deposition and discoloration, nephritis, azotemia, allergy and photosensitivity, Fanconi like syndrome (proximal tubular function of the kidney is impaired, resulting in decreased reabsorption of electrolytes and nutrients back into the bloodstream).
Imipenem
Hypotension
Quinolone
Peripheral neuropathy (nerve damage), CNS stimulation, Mental disorders, seizure, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea
Flucytosine
Neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and hepatitis.
Nafcillin
narrow spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic of the penicillin class. As a beta-lactamase-resistant penicillin, it is used to treat infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, particularly species of Staphylococci, that are resistant to other penicillins.
Vancomycin
glycopeptide antibiotic, Gram-positive bacteria. Known as a drug of "last resort", but recently displaced by linezolid and daptomycin.
Tetracycline
broad spectrum polyketide antibiotic, inhibiting action of the 30S ribosome, by binding aminoacyl-tRNA. Primarily treatment of acne vulgaris and rosacea
Stavudine
Peripheral neuropathy.
Sulfonamide
Kernicterus (damage to the brain due to bilirrubin), rash, exfoliative dermatitis, Steven-Johnson Syndrome ( life-threatening condition affecting the skin, in which due to cell death the epidermis separates from the dermis) and bone marrow suppression
Cephalosporins
1 Cefamandole 2 Cefotetan 3 Cefoperazone 4 Cefmetazole 5 Moxalactam
Didanosine
Pancreatitis and peripheral neuropathy.
Aminoglycosides
1. Gentamicin 2. Tobramycm 3. Amikacin 4. Netilmicin 5. Streptomycm
Ketoconazole
Hepatitis and gynecomastia
Quinolone
1. Ciprofloxacin (2) (Ciprobay, Cipro, Ciproxin) 2. Enoxacin (2) (Enroxil) 3. Levofloxacin (3) (Cravit, Levaquin) 4. Ofloxacin (2) (Floxin) 5. Norfloxacin (2) (Lexinor)
Macrolide group
Cholestatic jaundice, nausea, vomiting and ototoxicity
Ampicillin
Anaphylaxis, rash, serum sickness, anemia, thrombocytopenia, diarrhea, hepatitis and phlebitis
Aminoglycosides
binds to 30S ribosomal subunit or 50S subunit, inhibiting the translocation of the peptidyl-tRNA and also causing misreading of mRNA, leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth. Infections aerobic, gram-negative such as Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and Enterobacter. Also some Mycobacteria, including tuberculosis.
Oxacillin
Hepatitis
Foscamet
antiviral medication used to treat herpes viruses, including cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2
Macrolide group
large macrocyclic lactone, respiratory tract and soft tissue infections, slightly wider spectrum than that of penicillin therefore a common substitute for patients with a penicillin allergy. Beta-hemolytic streptococci, pneumococci, staphylococci and enterococci. inhibition of bacterial protein biosynthesis by binding reversibly to the subunit 50S of the bacterial ribosome, thereby inhibiting translocation of peptidyl tRNA
Didanosine
reverse transcriptase inhibitor, effective against HIV and used in combination with other antiretroviral drug in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
Cephalosporins
Bleeding and disulfiram reaction with alcohol
Flucytosine
antimycotic drug, related to the cytostatic fluorouracil and to floxuridine. Oral for the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible strains of Candida or Cryptococcus neoformans. Not be used as a sole agent in life-threatening fungal but with amphotericin B and/or azole antifungals such as fluconazole or itraconazole.
Ampicillin
beta-lactam antibiotic, Gram-positive and some Gram-negative, differs from penicillin by amino group that helps penetrate the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. It acts as a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme transpeptidase to make their cell walls. To treat urinary tract infections, otitis media, uncomplicated community-acquired pneumonia, Haemophilus influenzae, salmonellosis and Listeria meningitis
Clindamycin
lincosamide antibiotic. Treat infections with anaerobic bacteria including infections of the respiratory tract, septicemia and peritonitis.but also be some protozoal such as malaria. Plus benzoyl peroxide is effective in the treatment of acne.
Penicillin+ Imipenem
Siezure
Aminoglycosides
Nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity and neuromuscular paralysis
Macrolide group
1. Erythromycin 2. Azithromycin 3. Clarithromycin
Acyclovir
Renal failure and phlebitis (inflammation of a vein, usually in the legs, also known as thrombophlebitis)
Ganciclovir
Neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and hepatitis.
AmphotericinB
Nephrotoxicity, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia and anemia.
Zalcitabine
Peripheral neuropathy.
Cephalosporins
╬▓lactam antibiotics, bactericidal, same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics disrupting synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls. First-generation active against Gram-positive , and successive generations have increased activity against Gram-negative.
Sulfonamide
competitive inhibitors in folate synthesis. Folate is necessary for the cell to synthesize nucleic acids. Exhibit a bacteriostatic rather than bactericidal effect. Treat pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, urinary tract infections, shigellosis, and certain protozoan infections
Chloramphenicol
Aplastic anemia, gray baby syndrome.
Stavudine
nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NARTI) active against HIV.
Imipenem
Belongs to the subgroup of carbapenems, aerobic and anaerobic Gram positive as well as Gram negative bacteria. Important against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Enterococcus species. It is not active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Restricted in order to avoid widespread bacterial resistance. Inhibits cell wall synthesis.
Zalcitabine
nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NARTI) sold under the trade name Hivid. Inconvenient three-times daily frequency and is associated with serious adverse events. For these reasons rarely used to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV),

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