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 Ant pit acidophils make

GH, prolactin

"Throw acid in GP's face" 

a-glucosidase inhibitors

Acarbose, Miglitol

Inhibit brush border sugar hydrolysis 

Addison's signs/sx
hypotension, skin hyperpigmentation, weakness, vomitting, diarrhea, sweating
all hormones are down except prolactin is increased?
Hypothalmus lesion or pit stalk is severed
Alpha subunit

common to TSH, LH, FSH, hCG

B-unit differentiates them 

Amine hormones are derived from?


Thyroid, epi, norep 

Ant pit is derived from?
oral ectoderm
anti-microsomal Abs

result of thyroid destruction in hashimoto's

anti-thyroglobulin too 



decrease gluconeogenesis 

bone disease of primary hyperparathyroid

osteitis fibrosa cystica  (von recklinhausen's)

cystic bone lesions (painful) filled w/ brown fibrous tissue 

bone disease of renal failure
renal osteodystrophy
Causes of galactorhea


Antipsychotics (DA antagonists)


causes of hypercalcemia

Ca, Hyperparathyroid, Iatrogenic, Multiple myeloma, Paget's, Addison's, Neoplasms, ZE, Excess Vit D, Excess Vit A, Sarcoid


causes of hypoparathyoid

Presents w/ signs of hypocalcemia (Chvosteck, Trouseau)

surgical damage of parathyroid, Di George 

conn's syndrome
primary hyperaldosteronism
control of prolactin

DA is increased by prolactin and inhibits release from ant pit. 

TRH stimulates release from ant. pit and is inhibited by T4. 

Cushing's syndrome, key findings
HTN, hyperglycemia, truncal obeisity, osteoporosis, amenorrhea, etc.
distinguish Addison's from secondary cause
Addison's has hyperpigmentation from MSH from excess ACTH production from POMC
Drugs that cause nephrogenic DI
Li, demeclocycline (tetracycline used to tx SIADH)
endocrine uses of octreotide
acromegaly, carcinoid, gastrinoma, glucagonoma
functions of T3

Brain maturation

Bone growth

Beta-adrenergic effect

BMR increase (Na/K ATPase) 

germinal centers in thymus

myasthenia gravis

produce the Abs that attack the ACh receptors

Can also see thymomas (less common) 

germinal centers in thyroid gland

Pioglitazone, Rosiglitazone, (Troglitzone off market)

Increase target cell response to insulin

SE:Fluid retention-->don't give to CHF pt's 

glucocorticoid mechanism

decrease leukotriene production by inhibiting phospholipase A2  and expression of COX-2

High dose dexamethasone suppression
ACTH producing tumor in pit = cushing's DISEASE
HLA type in DMI
HLA-DR3 and 4
HLA type in Hashimoto's
HLA Dr3, Dr5

short: lispro, regular

intermediate: NPH, Lente

Long: Glargine, ultra-lente 

Ketoconazole and steroids
supresses hormone synth
low dose dexamethasone suppression
healthy and normal
masculinized female newborn

21OHase deficiency, decreased aldo and cortisol, hypotension, increased ACTH

HTN w/ 11OHase defeciency 

Medullary thyroid cancer

cells are neural crest origin (same as pheo)

produce calcitonin that becomes amyloid


Men I


Parathyroid tumor, Pancreatic tumor, Pituitary tumor



Pheo, mudullary thyroid, parathyroid

ret proto-oncogene

Presentation: Kidney stones and ulcers 


Pheo, mudullary thyroid, intestinal nueromas

ret proto-oncogene

pancreas endo cell types a, b, d




Pharm tx of pheo
phenoxybenzene (irreversible b-adrenergic blocker)
phenotypically female newborn w/out physical development
17OHase deficiency, hypertension
Post pit is derived from?

kidney unresponsive to PTH

short stature, short 4th/5th digits 

PTU, methimazole

inhibit iodination and condensation

skin rash, agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia 

ret proto-oncogene

gain of function = hirchsprung's

loss of function = MEN I and IIa

sympathomimetic serotonin and norep reuptake inhibitor
steroid hormones are derived from?


subacute thyroiditis

self-limited HYPOthyroidism

Can by hyperthyroid early on

Tender thyroid gland 


Tolbutamide, chlopropamide: (disulfiram effect)

Glyburide, Glimepiride, Glipizide 

Block K+ channel-->depolarize cell-->increase insulin release 

Ts for SIADH
demeclocycline, H20 restriction
Tx for agromegaly
Tx for carcinoid sydnrome
Tx for DI

central: intranasal desmopressin

nephrogenic: HCTZ, indomethacin, amiloride 

Used to tx increased prolactin secretion
DA antagonists (bromocriptine)
what is dexamethasone
cortisol analog
which tissues don't need insulin to take up Glu?

Brain and RBCs

have GLUT1 trasporter 

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