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Pharmacology exam 4


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what do problems with the GIT include?
Regurgitation, vomiting, diarrhea, weight loss, flatulation, colic,bloat, and abnorm BM.
What does ANS stand for?
Autonomic Nervous System
what does the stimulation of the parasympathetic portion of the ANS increase?
Intest mobility, tone, secretion, and relaztion of sphincters.
What are the drugs called that mimic parasympathetic stimulation?
What are the group of drugs called that INHIBIT the parasympathetic stimulation?
What does the sympathetic branch of the ANS do?
decrease intestional mobility, decrease tone, decrease sectretions, and increase anal sphincter tone
what are the hormones released from intestinal cells
Gastrin, Secretin, Cholecystokinin
what functions do hormones control
Gastric secretions, gastric and gall bladder emptying
what is serotinin on the first page of the notes actually supposed to be?
what do H2 receptors cause the release of?
hydrochloric acid
what is released from specialized GI cells
histamine, serotonin, prostaglandins
what do serotonin and prostaglandins do?
who knows?
what is vomiting?
Forced expultion of stomach contents
what is vomiting initiated by
stimulation of the emectic/vomiting center in the brain.
where is the vomit center located in the brain?
Medulla oblongata
what does CRTZ stand for
Chemorecptor trigger zone
T/F Occational vomiting of the dog or cat is normal?
in what animals whould vomiting be abnormal
Horse, rabbit, rat
what is it called when semi digested material is cast up from the rumen
what do emetics do
cause vomiting
what percent of stomach contents are removed when an animal is given an emetic?
Why would a emetic be given
remove ingested poisons, empty stomach prior to anes
when would you not use an emetic
if the animal is semi-conscious, or is seizing
T/F A rabbit should be given an emetic if it has swallowed poison.
False. rabbits do not normally vomit
what are the 2 classifications of emetics?
Centrally acting and Locally acting
what animal can centrally acting narcotic analgesics be used in as an emetic?
Dogs only
what drugs can be used centrally for emetic purposes? (4)
Morphine, Apomorphine HCL (DOG ONLY)and xylazine (Rompun R), and Syrup of Ipecac
what OTC drug has central and local effects
syrup of Ipecac
HOW are emetics classified
On whether the act on the CRTZ or act locally
what is the emetic of choice in the cat?
Xylazine (Rompun R)
what drug is not classified as a emetic, but the label states it will produce vomiting?
Xylazine (Rompun R)
How does an locally acting emetic work?
It irritates the gastric/pharyngeal mucosa, causing reflex vomiting.
What are the 3 locally acting emetics used in vet med
Hydrogen peroxide, warm salt water, and Syrup of Ipecac
What do antiemetics do?
Prevent vomiting
what are the uses of antiemetics
prevent motion sickness, prevent vomiting while under anes, prevent post op vomiting, treat persistant vomiting
what do Phenothiaxine derivatives and Precainimide derivatives act on
centrally acting antiemetics
what are Phenothiazine derivatives and what are the common side effects
they are antiemetics useful in motion sickness. Side effect is sedation
what are the 3 phenothiazine derivatives?
Tranquilizer/ Acepromazine, chlorpromazine/ Thorazine, Prochlorperazine/ Darbazine
What is Acepromazine
what is the trade name for chlorpromazine
what kind of derivative is prochlorperzaine/Darbazine
what are procainimide derivatives especially useful for treating
what is the nick name for metoclopramide/ Reglan
Stomach Dumper
waht are the 3 drugs that are Procainimide derivatives
Reglan, Benadryl, Dramamine
what might locally acting antiemetics also contain
local anesthetics,antacids, and protectants
waht are some local antiemetics
Maalox, Mylanta, Milk of Magnesia, Pepto BisMol, Kaopectate
why should protectaints containing magnesium not be given while on tetracycline or corticosteroids
it can interfere with or decrease absorption of the protectants
what can cause diarrhea
parasites, viruses, bacteria, toxins, neoplasia, etc
Is hypomotility or hypermotility considered to be associated with diarrhea
what class of drugs is the choice for diarrhea in dogs
what do narcotic analgesics do for diarrhea
decrease intestional secretions and motility and increase intestional absorption.
what are the 2 narcotic analgesics used in diarrhea
Lomotil (combined with atropine to discourage abuse, and Immodium
what problem are anticholinergics and antispasmodics used for
why should you use Fagyl with caution as an antidiarrheal
can cause anorexia, hepatotoxicity, neutropenia, and neurotoxicity
If Aminoglycosides are used as antidiarrheals, what could happen
upset normal flora and result in Salmonella, colstridium, or Helicobactor
what are the 4 types of antidiarrheals
Narcotic analgesic, anticholinergics/antispasmodics, antibiotics, and protectants
what 3 things are used as "Drugs that alter pH"
Antacids, acidifiers, and Cimetidine (Tagamet)
Do antacids increase or decrease the pH of the stomach
Do Acidifiers increase or decrease the gastric contents
what does Cimetidine (Tagamet), a H2 blocker do
decreases acid production
what are the 2 types of Protectives
demulcents and absorbents
what are the 3 demulcents used in vet med
Pepto Bismol, Kaopectate, and Corrective Mixture
what is the purpose of Digestive enzymes
aid digestion and absorption
what is the clinical use of digestive enzymes
treatment of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency
what should be avoided when using digestive enzymes
spilling powder on skin and inhailing it
what group of drug may give you an asthma attack if inhaled
digestive enzymes
what are the 2 pancreatic digestive enzyme products that are approved for dog and cat
Viokase-V and Pancreatin
what are the porpose of Rumen Function drugs
treat rumen atony, restore normal flora, and treat bloat
what rumen function drug would be used on rumen atony
what does the rumen function drug Neostigmine do
stimulated paristalsis
what is the rumen function drug Probiocin used for
restore normal rumen flora, often used in calves on antibiotics
what are cathartics used for
laxative, stimulate defication
when would you use a cathartic
poisoning, empty colon, remove fecal impaction, colic, anthelmintics
what are the 3 types of cathartics
bulk,lubricant, stool softener
what is the bulk form of a cathartic made of
indigestible plant material
name some types of bulk laxatives
Equine Psyllium, Metamucil, Bran Mash
what is the base of lubricant cathartics
what are lubricant laxatives used for
constipation and fecal impactions
what are the 3 lubricant cathartics used in vet med
Laxatone, Kat-a-lax, Felaxin
what are some examples of stool softeners
colase and surfak
what are used as Appetite stimlants
Diazapam/Valium and B-vitamins

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