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Lab 21-22


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Lab 21
Discuss the meaning of selective toxicity in terms of antimicrobial chemotherapy.
Selective toxicity refers to a chemicals ability to inhibit or kill only the microbe and not the host.
Lab 21
State why antimicrobial susceptibility testing is often essential in choosing the proper chemotherapeutic agent to use in treating an infection.
Because there is no way to predict what drugs will be successful in a given case, espcially with emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterium.
Lab 21
Interpret the results of a Bauer-Kirby antimicrobial susceptibility test when given a Mueller-Hinton agar plate, a metric ruler, and a standardized zone-size interpretation table.
dip your head in a vat of jello and yell "Walla-Walla"
Lab 22
Define the following: protozoan, trophozoite, cyst.
a) unicellular, eukaryotic microbes from Kingdom Protista. b) vegetative form of protozoans. c) protective form of some protozoans.
Lab 22
Describe the following in terms of the malarial life cycle: sporozoite, schizont, asexual cycle, sexual cycle.
Infective form of Plasmodium in mosquito. The human cells in which the organism is reproducing through schizogony. The cycle malaria completes in human liver and red blood cells. The cycle that occurs in mosquitos.
Lab 22
Recognize the following organisms when seen through a microscope and state what disease they are associated with:
a. Entamoeba histolytica cysts in a fecal smear
b. Trypanosoma gambiense in a blood smear
c. Giardia intestin
Look in manual
Lab 22
Define the following: a) helminth, b) ova, c) hermaphroditic.
a) worms b) eggs? (not in text) c)contain both male and female sexual organs
Lab 22
List the three classes of parasitic helminths and state the common name for each class.
Nematodes (Roundworms), Cestodes (Tapeworms), Trematodes (Flukes)
Lab 21
Define the following: a) antibiotic, b) antimicrobial chemotherapeutic chemical, c) narrow spectrum antibiotic, d) broad spectrum antibiotic.
a) substances produced as metabolic products of one microorganism against another.
b) synthesized chemicals which can be used therapeutically on microbes.
c) effective against just gram + or - or only a few species.
d) effective against a variety of gram+ and - microbes.
Lab 22
State how the following diseases may be transmitted to humans and briefly discuss how the diseases are diagnosed in the clinical laboratory:
a. amoebic dysentery
b. African sleeping sickness
c. giardiasis
d. genitourinar
a. fecal-oral route. Diagnosed by fecal smear.
b. bite from infected Tsetse fly. Observe blood, spinal fluid, or lymph node fluid for parasite.
c. fecal-oral route. Cysts in fecal smear.
d. venereal contact. Observe vagial discharge and urine under microscope.
e. fecal-oral route. Fecal smear.
f. Anopheles mosquito. Look for infected red blood cells.
g. ingesting raw infected meat or inhailing cytes from cat feces. Serologic test or cell culture of organism.
Lab 22
State how the following diseases may be transmitted to humans and state how each disease may be diagnosed in the clinical laboratory:
a. ascariasis
b. pinworms
c. trichinosis
d. tapeworms
e. flukes
a. Fecal oral route. Fecal smear.
b. fecal-oral route or inhalation of ova. Applying tape to perianal region to see if ova are present.
c. consuming poorly cooked pork containing the larvae. Serolocigal tests and biopsy.
d. eating poorly cooked meat containing cysticerci. Observing feces for proglottids and ova.
e. ingesting poorly cooked fish, crayfish, crabs, water vegetables. Looking for ova in urine, feces, or sputum? (not in text)
Lab 22
Recognize the following organisms or structures when seen through a microscope:
a. roundworms
b. Ascaris ova
c. pinworm ova
d. Trichinella in muscle tissue
e. tapeworms
f. scolex of a tapeworm
g. ova
a. Elongated, unsegmented, cyndrilical.
b. serrated edge
c. smooth edge
d. cyst in tissue containing larvae
e. Flat segmented worms
f. head structure with suckers and possibly hooks.
g. section from the worm with a uterus full of eggs.
h. unsegmented, flat, leaf-shaped. worms.
Lab 21
Describe four different major modes of action of antimicrobial chemotherapeutic chemicals and give three examples of drugs fitting each mode of action.
1. Inhibit peptidoglycan synthesis: penecillins, cephalosporins, monobactems.
2. Alter cytoplasmic membrane: polymixin B, nystatin, miconazole.
3. Inhibit protein synthesis: Rifampins, aminoglycosides, tetracycline.
4. Interfere with DNA synthesis: fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, metronidazole.

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