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Bone scan
Involves the intravenous injection of a radioscope, which is absorbed by the bone tissue. After 3 hours the skeleton is scanned with a gamma camera moving from one end of the body to the other. Detects the area of the radioactive concentration and converst the radioactive image to a screen where the concentrations show up as a pinpoint dots cast in the image of a skeleton.
Bone density evaluation
Process of removing a small sample of bone marrow from a selected site with a needle for the purpose of examining the specimen under a telescope.
dual photon absorptiometry
Noninvasive procedure that involves beaming a minimal amount of radiation through the bones. A computer then evaluates the amount of radiation absorbed by the bones and summarizes the findings, which are then interpreted by the physician.
dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)
Noninvasive procedure that measures bone density. An x-ray machine generates the energy protons that pass through the bones.
muscle biopsy
Extractions of the specimen of muscle tissue, through either a biopsy needle or an incisional biopsy, for the purpose of examining it under a microscope.
Process of recording the strength of the contraction of a muscle when it is stimulated by an electric current.
Surgical puncture of a joing with a needle for the purpose of withdrawing fluid for analysis.
Process of x-raying the inside of a joint after a contrast medium (substance that makes the inside of the joint visible) has been injected into the joint.
Surgical repair of a joint.
Visualization of the interior of a joint using an endoscope.
rheumatoid factor
A blood test that measures the presence of unusual antibodies that develop in a number of connective tissue diseases.
Erythrocyte sed rate (ESR)
Blood test that measures the rate at which erythrocytes settle in the bottom of the test tube filled with unclotted blood.
Babinski's Reflex
Tested by stroking the sole of the foot. Begins at midheel and moving upward and lateral to the toes. Positive result occurs when there is dorsiflexion of the great toe and fanning of the other toes.
cerebral angiography
Visualization of the cerebral vascular system via x-ray after the injection of the radiopaque contrast medium into an arterial blood vessel.
CT scan of the brain
Computerized tomographyis the analysis of a 3 dimensional view of brain tissue obtained as x-ray bones pass through successful horizontal layers of the brain.
Surgical procedure that makes an opening into the skull.
Ultrasound used to analyze the intercranial structure of the brain.
Measurement of electrical activity produced by the brain and recorded through electrodes placed on the scalp.
Surgical removal of the bony arches from one or more vertebrae to relieve pressure from the spinal cord.
lumbar puncture
Involves the insertion of a hollow needle and stylet into the subarachnoid space, generallly between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae below the level of the spinal cord under strict aseptic technique.
MRI of the brain
Noninvasive scanning procedure provides visualization of fluid, and tissue, and bony structures without the use of radiation.
Introduction of contrast medium into the lumbar subarachnoid space through a lumbar puncture in order to visualize the spinal cord and vertebral cord through x-ray examination.
Positron Emission Tomography
Produces computerized radiographic images of various body structures when radioactive substances are inhaled or injected.
Romberg Test
Used to evaluate cerebullar function and balances.
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation
Form of cutaneous stimulation for pain relief that supplies electrical impulses to the nerve endings of a nerve close to the pain site.

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