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Hist. Geology - Chapt. 14, 13, 15, 16, 17


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- Evolved from the Therapsids in the Triassic Period.
- Rodent like creatures
- Burrowing lifestyle
- Suckled their young
- Hairy
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammals
- Root stock of all Dinosaurs, Crocodiles, Flying reptiles.
- Evolved from advanced reptiles of the early Triassic Period
- Lizard hipped
- Pubis bone foward
Order: Sauischians
- First Dino's of the Triassic
- Eoraptor: Argentina - 3" long
- Bipedal
- Carnivores
- Quick & Agile
- Endothermic
- Pack hunters
Family: Theropods
Argentina 3" long
What was the top preditor of the Jurassic?
What Therapod of Cretacious replaced Allosaurus?
Tyrannosaurus Rex
- Largest dinosaurs
- Herbivores
- Quadrupedal
- Fed on Gymnosperms forests
- Evolved in Triassic
- Extinct in late Jurrasic withe the decline of the forests
- Diet of a ton of food per day
Family: Sauropods
Ornithischian dinosaurs
- Bipedal Herbivores
- Fully evolved in the cretacious
- Iguanodon
- Hadrosaurs: Duck billed dinosaur
Family: Orinthopods
Gig'em Aggies
Duck billed Dinosaur
- Community nesting with large clutches of eggs and juvenilles
- Took care of young per Jack Horner
- Bellowi others
- Creactious horned dinosaurs
- Quadruped herbivores
- Evolved in the response to the evolution of the Angiosperms (flowering plant with seed enclosed in a nutrient sac)
- Fierce defenders when provoked by the Therapods
Family: Ceratopians
- Triassic to Cretacious
- Membranes with hair
- Endothermic
- Coastal habitat
- Smart brain
Subclass: Flying reptiles (Pterosaurs)
- Reverse evolution or "return to the sea"
- Baiting of land reptiles with a new fauna of sea turtles, lobsters, and fish
- Carnivores
Subclass: Aquatic Reptiles
- Triassic Period
- Limbs evolving into web-like appendages. Webbed limbs
- Lived on land
- Hunted in the sea
- Jurassic Period
- Dolphin like form
- 100% Marine
- Some adult female fossils contain fetal skeletons
- Gave live-birth to young
- Evolved from the Theropods during the Jurassic period (Archaeopteryx)
Class: Aves
- Chicken sized
- Fossilized feather imprints
- Lacked a breast bone for large sternum for flight muscles (Glider)
- Claws in the wings
- Long bony tail
- Teeth
- Evolved from Ceolophisis in Jurassic
First bird: Archaeopteryx
- 1986 Discovery by Texas Tech (Red Raider bird)
- Predates (Archaeopteryx by 75 million years)
- Not articulated, Composite of several Theropod Dinos
- No feather imprints
- Is this real?
Protoaves. Triassic period in Mesozoic Era
- Dinosaurs perished
- Aquatic reptiles perished
- Extensive depostion of chalk (Coccoliths)
- Worldwide regressions and loss of Epicontinental Seas
- Extreme volcanism
- 25% of animal families became extinct
Cretacious Extinction
- Iridium Anomaly through volcanism
- Impacted the Yucatan Penninsula
- But-Extinction occured over 5 million years
Asteroid impact
- Limbs evolving into web like appendages (Nothosaurs)
- Gave live birth (Ichthyosaurs)
Evolutionary adaptation fo the Aquatic Reptiles
Flowering plant with seed enclosed in a nutrient sac
This happened during which period?
- East-West Rifting creating Laurasia and Gondwanaland
- Formation of the Tethys Seaway (Ancestral Gulf of Mexico and Mediterranean Sea)
- Birth of the North Atlantic Ocean
First Stage- Triassic Period
- With Tethys Seaway a Mild and Tropical Climate Developed throughout the Mesozoic Era
- Petrified Forest and Painted Desert of Arizona
Triassic of North America
This happened during which period?
⬢Further Opening of the North Atlantic Ocean
⬢North America Drifting Westward
⬢Birth of The Rocky Mountains via Subduction (Severe Orogeny) and Continental Accretion of Alien Terranes (Tectonic Col
Second stage- Jurassic Period
This happened during which period? _____ of North America
•Sundance Seaway (Epicontinental Sea)
–Provides Excellent Coastal Habitat for Land Dwelling Dinosaurs
–Seaway fills-in during Cretaceous Period and forms the Morrison Formatio
Jurassic of North America
– Formed when the Gulf of Mexico became restricted
– Up to (a mile )5000’ thick
– Forms Salt Domes due to less dense salt migrating to the surface
Jurassic of North America;
⬢ Louann Salt Formation
This happened during which period?
- S. America & Africa Rift forming the S. Atlantic Ocean
- Birth of the Andes Mtns via Subduction
- India moving northward
- Laramide Orogeny: E-W Broadening of the Rockies by Thrust Faulting
Third stage- Cretacious period
E-W Broadening of the Rockies by Thrust Faulting
Laramide Orogeny
- Deposits from Phytoplankton (Coccoliths)
- White Cliffs of Dover (Chalk)
- The Chunnel (excavated from K Marl)
- Austin Chalk
Chalk/Marl Formations of the Cretaceous Period
•Australia Rifts from Antarctica
• Modern Events
– Himalayas
– Gulf Coast
– Cascade Mtns
– San Andreas Fault
– Mediterranean Sea
– East African Rift Valley
– Ice Age
Fourth Stage- Cenzoic Era
Collision of Indian Plate with the Eurasian Plate
Himalaya mountains
•“A wedge of sediments that thickens seaward through regression"
•Massive Marine Regression trapping oil/gas moving out
Gulf Coast
Collision of the Juan de Fuca Plate and the North American Plate
Mount St. Helens
- Strike-Slip fault
- Pacific Plate is Moving Northwest relative to the North American Plate
San Andreas Fault. Cenzoic era
- Sea became restricted due to the Northward push of Africa
- Dried out depositing salt
- Valley was 9000’ deep
- 5 million years the Straits of Gibraltar opened
- Upward migrating salt
- Extensive salt deposits on ocean floor
Mediterranean Sea. Cenzoic era
⬢Continental Rifting
⬢Divergent Plate Boundary
⬢Birth of Hominids
East African Rift Valley
•2 million years ago
•5 cycles of glaciation
– Cause: Wobble
– Lack of CO2
Pleistocene Ice Age. Cenzoic
Why are there seasons?
Because axis is tilting
Washington Crossing the Delaware, Dec. 25, 1776
Little Ice Age, 1540-1890
•Age of Mammals
– Grass development through Rhizome Reproduction
– Grasslands and Prairies
– Spurred the evolution of the Large Herbivore Mammals
–5 Epoch of Time
–66-2 Million Years
- Oldest
Tertiary Period; Cenzoic
– 2 Epochs of Time
- Youngest
•Pleistocene Epoch (2 Million Years Ago w/ Ice Age)
•Holocene Epoch (Appearance of Homo sapiens)
Quaternary Period
Marsupials, kangaroo
Placentals, belly button mammals
Placental chord
– Egg laying Mammals
- Suckles young
- Has hair
– Primitive Mammary Glands, vestigial
– Australia
Subclass: Monotremes, Duckbill Platypus
– Pouch Mammals
– Evolved in Australia and S. America
– Opossum migrated to USA from S. America across the Panamanian Land Bridge
Subclass: Marsupials
Where do marsupials come from?
Australia & South America
How can two seperate animals develop in seperate Continents?
Parellel evolution
Occurred about 2 million years ago in the Late Tertiary Period
Panamanian Land Bridge
“The Great American Interchange”
Fetus attached by a Placental Chord (Belly Button)
Subclass: Placentals
- Dog and Cat Families
- Root stock for many of the later mammals
- Early Tertiary, first period of cenzoic
Order: Carnivores
- Responded to the Grasslands (Herbivores)
- Horses (evolved from dogs w/ modification of the foot or hoofs and bones and became bigger)
- Tertiary Evolution
Order: Hoofed animals
– Mastodon of Late Tertiary
– Adaptation of the Nose into a Proboscis (long snout or trunk)
– Woolly Mammoth of the Quaternary Period (ushered in the Ice Age)
Elephant family
- Elephant Family Originated in Africa and Migrated to North America via Bering Land Bridge
- Current Species are the African and Asian Elephants
- Reverse migration with Manatees (manatees are elephants)
- Root stock evolved from Mastodon
Migration of the Mastodons and Wolly Mammoths
(Adaptation of Nose into a Blow-hole)
- Includes Tooth whales & Baleen whales
Order: Cetaceans
First whales evolved from dogs in the Tertiary Period)
Family: Toothed Whales Carnivorous
Strain phytoplantkon and small crustaceans
Family: Baleen whales
Which is the largest animal to have ever existed?
Blue Whale
Identify whales by their _____
Blow-hole configuration
________ a lemur-like Primate(first true primate of the Tertiary Period)
- Large Brained
- Arboreal (tree-dwellers)
- Opposing Digit or opposing thumb
- Sensory Perception (feel, touch, smell, stereoscopic vision)
- Usually One B
Aegyptopithecus; Order Primates
- Order Primate:
_____ (Gibbons, Orangutan, Chimpanzee, Gorilla, Humans)
Superfamily Hominoids
Human Family
Family Hominids
– Dead-end
– Gene Pool Eliminated
– 5-6 Feet
– Powerful Jaws
– Hard-core Vegetarian
- Nutcracker with large jaws
A. robustus
– 4 ½ Tall
– Split off to A. robustus and H.habilis
– African Savannahs
- Stock of Robustus & Habilis
A. Africanus
"Lucy in the sky"
- Locking knee
- discovered in Hadar, Ethiopia, 1974 by Johanson
- 3.5 Million Years Old
– 3-4’ Tall, 60-100 pds
– Brain 1/3 the Size of Modern Humans
A. Afarensis
–“Handy Man”
– Evolved 2 Million Years Ago
– Small 3’ Tall
– Brain 2/3 size of Modern Humans
– Made Tools from Chert
– Hunted (First Carnivore)
– Lived in Africa- Toolmaker
- Thinkers
- Hunt
H. Habilis
Peking & Java man
(Peking man found in China)
(Java man found in Indonesia)
– Upright Posture
– Athletic
– Migrated out of Africa
– Used Fire-Cooked Food
– Reduced Jaw Size
– Brain approaching mode
H. Erectus
- Neanderthals (first sapien)
– Cro-Magnon Man
– Buried the Dead
– Jewelry
– Wider Pelvis for Birth
– Migrated to the Americas via Bering Land Bridge
H. Sapiens
– Locking Knee Joint
– Footprints (Trace Fossil) in Ash indicate two individuals walking side by side (Discovered by the Leakey's)
– Pelvic Girdle
Evidence fo Bipedalism
– Gathered berries, nuts, and foliage
– Dug for roots and tubers using animal bones
– Lived in the forest floor
– Lived in Family Units
Lucy's Behavior
– Exponential Growth
– Has Moderated in the Last 2 Decades
– Most Growth in Asia, China, and India
Human Population
Humans belong to which order of mammals?
Which has a prehensile tail that can be wrapped around branches?
All monkeys
Cro-Magnon people are...
homo Sapiens
This hominid was present up until about 28,000 years ago in central Europe.
They manufactured a variety of stone tools, and used fire, which provided light in caves, gave warmth, and allowed the thawing and cooking of food. They constructed shelters of skins, sticks and bones. They cared for the sick and buried artifacts with th
”Lucy”, discovered by Donald Johanson in 1974, was an erect-walking hominid in East Africa about 3.5 million years ago. “Lucy” belonged to this species:
Australopithecis afarensis
This is the dominant type of plant in the Cenozoic
Egg laying mammals are called:
In the evolution of the horse, these were gradually lost:
Side toes
During the Cenozoic, many species of South American marsupial were driven to extinction by the migration of competitors from the north across the
Panamanian Land Bridge
Mammoths and mastodonts are most closely related to:
During the Cenozoic, along the west coast of the U.S., the Farallon plate was being subducted at a rate faster than it was growing at its spreading center. As a result, the North American plate was brought into contact with the Pacific plate. This led to
Formation of San Andreas Fault
As the Cenozoic climate became cooler and drier, the tropical forests which had covered parts of North America during the Cretaceous began to decline, and were replaced by the expansion of the _____________ across the plains of the Midwest in North Ameri
Lakes in eastern Africa formed in this sort of tectonic feature
Rift Valley
Eight major transgressions and regressions in the Gulf of Mexico coastal plain area led to the formation of ______________:
A wedge of sediment that thickens seaward
The Solnhofen Limestone which produced Archaeopteryx is this age:
Archaeopteryx was an early
Dinosaurs are divided into two groups (Orders) on the basis of:
Hip Bone Structure
The flowering plants belong to this group:
Plates on the back of the stegosaurs may have been used for what purpose?
Regulation of body temperature
The climate during most of the Cretaceous was
Warm and stable
Mammals appeared around this time
Late Triassic
Dinosaurs appeared around this time
Late Triassic
A major extinction event occurred at the end of this period, causing the extinction of the dinosaurs, ammonites, plesiosaurs, mosasaurs and other groups
The extensive chalk deposits of the Cretaceous were formed from the remains of this type of organism
Which of the following is endothermic
The Mesozoic was characterized by the breakup of?
Thick Jurassic evaporite deposits, which formed salt domes, were deposited here
Gulf of Mexico
The Atlantic and Gulf coastal plain areas were flooded by the sea at this time
The Cretaceous is named for this rock type, a variety of limestone deposited in inland seas in many parts of the world
Most of the structures of the present-day Rocky Mountains are the result of this orogeny:
The bones of more than 70 species of dinosaurs are present in these floodplain deposits, exposed near Grand Junction, Colorado:
Morrison formation
The interior of North America was flooded by an epicontinental sea at this time
When did the Rockies occur?
Second stage (Jurassic) through subduction
How are salt domes formed?
Upward movement of less dense salt through overburden
Period of Little Ice Age?
1540 - 1890
Name marsupial that migrated to North America?

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