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Notes. Chapt. 1-2; Physical Geology


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Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
Inner planets (Rock Planets)
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto
Outer Planets (Gas Balls)
* Blue Marble
* Volcanism-Outgassing
* Mild Greenhouse
* Hydrosphere of liquid water and vapor
* Hot Planet
* Volcanism-Outgassing
* Run-away Greenhouse
* Vaporized Atmosphere
* The Dead Planet
* Extinct Volcanoes-No outgassing
* Feeble-Cold Atmosphere
* Polar Icecaps
* Cycle of water from the Ocean to the Land and back to the Ocean
Hydrosphere-Hydrologic System
* ________ (topography or relief of the ocean floor) from Seismic Profiling
* Developed Post WWII from Submarine Detection Systems
Bathymetry; Major Features of the Ocean Floor
* Splits in the seafloor marked by volcanic and seismic activity
Ridges of the Ocean Floor
* Elongated linear, deep depressions in the ocean floor
* Marked by Volcanism and Seismic Activity
* Oriented parallel and offshore to the Continents
Trenches of the Ocean Floor
* Plate boundaries are delineated by active ______ and seismic activity
* Coincide with Ridges and Trenches
Less dense, created at Subduction Zones and never destroyed
Continental Crust
More dense, Generated at the ridge and subducted (destroyed) at the Trench
Oceanic crust
Where plates move apart from one another
Divergent Plate Boundary
Convection Cells within the ______ cause divergence and oceanic crust formation at the Ridge
Plate Tectonics Mechanism; Asthnosphere
* _____ are Naturally Occurring and are cytalline. ______ are neutral with specific atomic structures. _______ are neutral and represent compounds
Are the smallest identifiable unit of Matter
and are composed of protons (+) & neutrons contained in a nucleus, and electrons (-)
Are classified according to their atomic number which equals the number of protons in its nucleus
(atoms with an electrical charge) are denoted by ionic charge
* Opposite charges attract and form ionic bonds
– Example: Salt Na+ + Cl- NaCl (Neutral)
Atomic bonding
No matter how large or small the crystal, the crystal faces always meet at the same angle
Law of Constancy of Interfacial Angles
Measures the angles between the crystal faces to Identify the atomic structure
Helps determine the structure of the mineral
X-Ray Diffraction
Crystal Form or Shape
Physical Properties of Minerals
What property does this mineral fall under? Halite (salt)
Sulphur, clay
What property does this fall under? Talc (greasy feel)
Touch or feel
Least diagnostic test, minerals have many colors within same species
– Exception: 24K Gold streak is yellow. Pyrite streak (fools gold) is black
weight or mass/volume
– a 1 carat diamond is .1 grams and a 1 carat topaz is .1 grams
– the diamond is of higher density than topaz
– which mineral is bigger in volume? Topaz
Ability of the Mineral to reflect light (Metallic or Nonmetallic Luster)
Color of the powdered form of the Mineral
– 24K Gold streak is yellow,
– Pyrite streak is grey-black
Minerals’ resistance to abrasion
* Measured on Mohs Hardness Scale
* Scale is exponential
– an increase of 1 on the scale signifies a 10 fold increase in hardness
* Emerald (Hardness 9) on Calcite (Hardness of 3)
ability of the Mineral to break along smooth flat planes
When the Mineral breaks along uneven surfaces
* ________ (SiO2) compose more than 95% of the Earth’s Crust
- Oxygen is 50% of Earth's crust
- Silica is 25% of Earth's crust
Pyrite, Hematite, Magnetite, Galena
Ore Minerals
- Halite (NaCl)
– Gypsum CaSO4
Evaporitic Minerals
Calcite CaCO3
Carbonate Minerals
What type of rock is this? Form by the solidification of magma or lava (molten rock material and gas)
Igneous Rocks
- Building Materials
o Ores
o Distribution: Canadian Shield
o Rocky Mtns
o Appalachian Mtns
o Central Texas
o Compose ~ 15% of Basement Rock
Importance of Igneous Rocks
>50% SiO2 , Sluggish, High Viscosity (resistance to flow), Does not easily degas, explosive type of eruptions. Examples: Convergent Plate Boundaries associated with Continental Crust Formation
Silicic Magma/Lava
<50% SiO2 , Very Fluid, Low Viscosity (resistance to flow), Readily degasses, nonexplosive or quiet type of eruptions
o Examples: Divergent Plate Boundaries associated with Oceanic Crust
Mafic Magma/Lava
When Solidified, Magma Chamber becomes a ______
composed of Granite and/or Diorite
What type of volcano is this? Form by alternating eruptions of pyroclastic material (ash) and thick lava flows
o _______ Formation from collapsed craters
Caldera; Products of silic eruptions
What type of Rock is this? ________ are generated at Ridges (Divergent Plate Boundaries). ______ are also Generated within the Oceanic Crust.
Generation of Mafic (Basaltic) Rocks
What type of volcano is this? Due to extensive outpouring of mafic lava with little pyroclastic material
Shield Volcanoes
What texture is this? Extrusive, Continental Rocks, Volcanic eruptions are...
Pyroclastic Texture
SiO2 & Gas (Bombs)
SiO2 & Rock Frags
Large Rock Frags
What is texture of Obsidian? Extrusive,Cont/Oceanic Rocks
o Obsidian: SiO2
Glassy Texture
Form through the Lithification of Sediments
⬢ Rock Fragments
⬢ Chemical Precipitates
⬢ Organic Material
* Well Stratified (Layered)
Sedimentary Rocks
⬢ Weathering
⬢ Erosion
⬢ Transportation (wind, water)
⬢ Deposition
⬢ Burial
⬢ Compaction & Cementation
Most studied rocks
- Cover 75% of the Continental Crust
- Contain Fossils
- Contain fossil fulels: Oil, Gas & Coal
- Used as building materials: Stone, cement
- Source of minerals: Copper, Gold, Silver, Diamonds, Uranium
Importance of Sedimentary Rocks
Conglomorate, Sandstone, Siltstone, Shale (see notes)
Clastic Texture Sedimentary Rocks Composed of Rock Fragments
Carbonate, Evaporate, Biogenic (see notes)
Non Clastic Texture Sedimentary Rocks Composed of Chem Precips & Organics
Layered Configuration due to Deposition of Sediments by Water and Wind
Are inclined Structures within the Formation due to Dune Formation
⬢ Occurs in Sandstones
⬢ Defines Paleocurrent Direction
Retreat of the Shoreline (land advancing seaward due to deposition and/or lowering of sealevel) EOD: Fluvial/Nonmarine
Advance of the Shoreline (sea advancing over the land due to erosion and/or a rise in sealevel) EOD: Marine
* Units grouped into Formations
* Formations usually represent Transgressions and Regressions of the Sea
Stratigraphic Sequences
• Building Materials
• Ores
• Distribution:
– Canadian Shield
– Rocky Mtns
– Appalachian Mtns
– Central Texas
• Compose ~ 85% of Basement Rock
Importance of Metamorphic Rocks
⬢ Rocks that have been _______ deformed by heat, pressure, and chemical activity. the process is plastic deformation. The process agents are heat, pressure and chemical activity
⬢ Plastic Deformation occurs in a solid-state, i.e., if the rock is
⬢ Minerals become Recrystallized
⬢ Crystals become larger
⬢ Rock becomes more Compact and Harder
⬢ Rock changes in Texture
Changes in Metamorphic Rocks
Metamorphic rocks are primarily formed at ________ Plate Boundaries where there is ample heat and pressure to deform the rocks.
What texture is this metamorphic Rock? Planar (layered) appearance in the rock
Foliated Texture
Slate, Schist, Gneiss
(see notes)
Foliated Texture: Metamorphic Rocks
What type of texture is this metamorphic rock? Massive appearing rocks without any apparent structure
Metaconglomerate, Quartzite, Marble (see notes)
Nonfoliated Texture: Metamorphic Rocks
⬢ Suite of Metamorphic Rocks that occur in a definite and recognizable order
⬢ Reflect differences in Metamorphic Grade across a region
Metamorphic Zones
Central Texas
Contact Metamorphic Zone
Ocean as Salt (NaCI) water
Land as Freshwater
_____% of the freshwater is Ice (Glacial systems)
Solid Fe & Ni (Iron & Nickel)
Inner Core
What part of the earth does this contain? Liquid Fe & Ni (Iron & Nickel)
Outer Core
Thick (SiO2) Quartz & "Heavies"
Plastic Sio2 (quartz)& "Heavies"
Solid Sio2 & "Heavies"
Graphite (C) & Diamond (C)
Inorganic solids
Are minerals that share the same chemical composition but have different internal structures
North American Plate vs Juan de Fuca Plate
Mt. St. Helen's
South American Plate vs. Nazca Plate
Andes Mountains
Pacific Plate called ______ due to Subduction
The Ring of Fire
Australian-Indian Plate vs. Eurasian Plate
Antartic plate ringed with _________
Oceanic ridges
Solid Fe & Ni
Inner Core
Liquid Fe & Ni
Outer Core
Thick SIO2 (quartz) & Heavies
Plastic SIO2 & Heavies
Solid SIO2 (Quartz)& Heavies
Plates move toward one another
Convergent Plate Boundaries
Is the main building block of silicates. Examples: Quartz, Feldspars, Micas, Talc, Ruby, Sapphire
Silica Oxygen tetrahedron
Talc; Hardness?
Hardness: 1
Gypsum; Hardness
Hardness: 2
Calcite; Hardness
Hardness: 3
Fluorite; Mohs Hardness
Hardness: 4
Apatite; Hardness
Hardness: 5
K-Feldspar; Hardness
Hardness: 6
Quartz, Hardness
Hardness: 7
Topaz; Hardness
Hardness: 8
Corundum; Harness
(Sapphire, elmerald, Ruby)
Hardness; 9
Diamond; Hardness
Hardness; 10
What type of rock is this? _________ are generated within subduction zones as Convergent plate boundaries as Magma Chambers. They process via magmatic differentiation (selective enrichment of the magma by SIO2)
Silic Rocks
_______ has one proton in a central nucleus and one orbiting electron
________ has two protons, two neutrons in the nucleus and two orbiting electrons
Selective enrichment of the magma by SIO2. It includes fractional crystalization, magma mixing, and assimilation
Magmatic differentiation
What comprises (85%)majority of basement rock?
Metamorphic Rock
What comprises (75%)majority of basement rock?
Sedimentary rock
What comprises (15%)majority of basement rock?
Igneous Rock
Where are Metamorphic Rocks generated?
Convergent Plate boundaries
Other bonding: Metallic
Between ore mineral
Other bonding: Covalent
Between gases
- Silic
- Continental crust - 29%
- Explosive
- Granite
- Diorite
- Ryolite
- Andesite
- Mafic
- Oceanic Crust -71%
- Non-explosive
- Basalt
- Gabbro
Crystalization of molten material liquid to a solid
Composed of liquids and gases on bottom
What drives the interior of the earth?
Distribution of biodiversity is greater along the _____
Greatest diveristy of ocean
Higher latitude
What we breath
Oxygen comes from plants and _____
When magma chamber solidifies it is called a _______
Where do dunes form?
Upward fining Sequence of rocks
Graded bedding
An element that has the same atomic number, but different atomic weights is an...
The atomic number of an atom is the number of
Protons in the neucleus
Where are Igneous rocks found?
- Canadian shield
- Central Texas

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