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Hist. Geology - Chapt. 8,9,12,10,11


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At which Eon did this happen?
- Formation of the earth
- Hot hetogeneous differentiation of the earth, internal layering
- Major outgassing and formation of the atmosphere (hot and vaporized, Devoid of Oxygen)
- Meteorite and Asteroi
Archaeon Eon
- From Ultramafic to Selic crust
- Ocean to Ocean Convergence creating extensive island arc systems or (archipelagos)
- Magmatic differentiation enrichment of SIO2
- Canadian greenstone belts (Archaen Volcanic Islands)
Plate tectonics of the early Archean Eon
- Protocontinental to Protocontinental Convergence
(Ultramafic to Selic) that's convergence
Plate tectonics in the Late Archean Eon
Welding of the Protocontinental (Island Arc) Slabs creating a tectonic collage
- Silic (quartz rich) Continental crust with broad platforms
(Note: the mission of the Archaen was to change a ultramafic crust to a silic continental crust)
Continental Accretionary Tectonics
Sediment was very immature (coarse gravels and shale) due to steep sided (Continental margins) Island Arcs and deposition close to the soarce area
Archean Sedimintation - Early
Sedimintation somewhat more mature in the back are systems due to the establishment of platforms (longer transport of sediment)
Archean Sedimintation in the Late Archean
This took place in which eon?
- 2.5 billion years ago to 542 million years ago.
- Marked by mature Sedimintary Rocks in Stratified Sequences
- Well developed continetal shelves
- Developing Epicontinental Seas covering continetal pla
Proterzoic Eon
- Formation of Propangaea happened in the late...
Late Proterozoic
This happened when?
- Lab simulation experiments by Miller and Urey in the 1950's.
- Mixed Methane, Amnmonia, Carbon Dioxide in anaerobic environment
- Added heat and sparks of electricity for entropy
- Result was a "primordial
Archaen; Organic evolution
Divergent ridges with geothermal vents and black smokers providing compounds and heat for random combinations of molecules
Volcanic systems
______ build nucleotides which are the main components of the DNA molecule
- Encase the ____ with cellular membrane of oily lipids
- Self-replicating cell, i.e. life
Amino Acids
DNA- Birthplace of life
_______ Cell which lacks a nuclear membrane
- Kingdom: Monera
- first bacteria practiced chemosynthesis, without light, rather than by photosynthesis (sulfate-reducing bacteria)
- Anerobic respiration (w/o Oxygen)
- Later Archean bact
Prokaryotic Cell; happened in the Archean
Which Eon did this happen? Extensive development of the Stromatolites (laminar structures formed by the trapping of sedimintary particles by cyanobacteria)
- Oxygen is being pumped into the atmosphere
Cynobacteria created
Late Archean
Alternating bands of oxidized hematites of the late Archean
- Indicates that oxygen concentrations in the atmosphere were in a pulsating flux - not totally red
Banded Iron formation of Canada
- Nuclear membrane
- Symbiotic evolution of 2 or more Prokaryotes
- ______ contain a nucleus and organelles (such as chloroplasts and mitochondria) within the cell. Prokaryotes do not.
- Respiration: (see notes)
When did this happen?
Evolution of the Eukaryotic Cell. Kingdom: Protoctista. Protozoic
Animal Kingdom: Softbodied animals found in Australia
Ediacara Fauna of the Late Protoerozoic
- Indicate the advent of an oxygen environment
- Oxygen will still continue to accumulate to present day levels
- Carbon dioxide is decreasing
Red Beds of the Late Proterozoic
First life was bacteria. Reproduce asexually by simple cell division.
- Sulfate reducing bacteria
- Cynobacteria
- No nucleus
This restricts their genetic variability. For this reason, _______ have shown little evolutionary change f
reproduce sexually through the union of an egg and sperm. This combines chromosomes from each parent and leads to genetic recombination and increased variability. A great variety of new genetic combinations.
Which period did this take place?
- Soft and hard bodied Fauna of the _________
- Located in the Canadian rockies
- Outcrop in the Rockies
- Contains a shallow water fauna that was swept into the abyss by an underwater landslide (lack
Cambrian; Burgess Shale
Possess a notochord and a series of V-shaped dorsal muscles attached to the notochord
- First Chordate
Top carnivore of the Cambrian seas (fed on trilobites)
- Origianlly thought to be three distinct fossils until a complete fossil was discovered in the 1990's
- Sponges
- Filter feeders
- Members of this exclusively marine phylum that possess a five way symetry that masks an underlying primitive bilateral symetry are called...
________, body wall of two layers of cells with jellylike material in between, radically symmetrical
Benthic corals
Class: Anthozoa
Basically a solitary coral of the Cambrian sea
Order: Rugosa
- Shells possess a lip like structure, i.e., the two shells differ in size and shape unlike clams.
- Marine shelled animals, shells are unequal but bilaterally symmetrical.
Phylum: Brachiopoda
The group that is probably the most abundant, diverse, and useful fossil found in the Paleozoic rocks, characterized by a pair of enclosing valves, which together constitute the shell of the animal called..
______ calcareous shelled animals, shells are usually symmetrical. Including bivalves, clams, oysters, chambered nautilus and octopods.
Phylum: Mollusca
The phylum that includes shell bearing invertebrates including bivalves (clams, oysters), snails, chambered nautilus and octopods is called...
Class: Gastropods
Clams with equal symmetrical shells
Class: Bivalves
Which Phylum doe this creature fall under?
- Animals with a five ray symmetry and a water vascular system for locomotion.
- Marine animals with 5-fold symmetry
Phylum: Echnodermata
Sea lillies; beaded stalks
Class: Crinoids
What phylum is this? _______, external skeleton with jointed appendages. Animals with an exoskeleton
Phylum: Anthropoda
Excellent guide fossil to the Paleontologist.
- Segmented animal of the Cambrian sea
- Most grazed on Stromotolites
Subphylum: Trilobites
Moss like animals. Commonly called sea fans.
Phylum: Bryozoa
Minute, bilaterally symmetric animals that grow in colonies and frequently appear as crusts or twig-like branches when viewed without the aid of a magnifier are termed
______________, swimming carnivores
Class: Cephalopod
_________, chambered shell with smooth sutures.
- Fed on trilobites which nearly became extinct
- Trilobites forced most of the stromotolites into extinction by late Ordivician
- Swam by jet propulsion
- Well developed eye
Order: Naultiloids
- Glaciation of Gondwanaland
- Evolution of preditors
- Habitats are full
Setting stage for rediversification
Leveling off Taxonomic Units in the Late Ordovician
_______, chambered or coiled shells with wavy sutures.
- More advanced than the Nautiloids
- Wider habitat due to reinforced sutures
- Dive to deeper depths
Order: Ammonoids
Chordates, animals with dorsal nerve.
Phylum: Chordata
______ or jawless fish.
- Jawless fish of the Cambrian period
- Commonly known as sucker fish
- Ancestor is Pikaia
Class: Ostracoderms
_______, small jawed fish of the Devonian period.
- Jaws evolved from the mandibular arches (gill arches) of the jawless fish
Class: Acanthodians
The Cambrian animal, Pikaia, of the Burgess Shale is important because it
Was the oldest known Chordata
- Sharks composed of cartilage
- Lacked swim bladder
- Sank if not swimming
- Fixed pectoral fins
- Could not stop or swim backwards
- Could see in black/white
Class: Chondrichthyes
- Bony fish
- Swim bladder
- Could see in color
- Could stop and swim backwards
- Lateral line for sensory input
Class: Osteichthyes
Transition from saltwater to freshwater environments
- Adaptation of the kidney to expel large quantities of absorbed fresh water
- Bones served as a calcium reservoir for metabolism
One of the characteristics of chordates is the presence of what feature in some stage of their development?
- Lung fish
- Articulated fins
- Freshwater
- Transition from freshwater to land
Took place at which period of time?
- Nonvascular plants (algae like plants and lichens)
Plant Kingdom; Cambrian period
- Allows plants to transport water and nutrients through a system of tubes
- Allows plants to grow upward and out of the water
Adaptation of Vascularized plants, (mosses, horsetails, liverworts)
- Plant Kingdom; Devonian period
- Spore must be placed in a moist environment for plant generation
- This lush habitat enticed the anthropods to migrate onto the land during the Devonian period
- Vegetation restriced to near shore environments
- Built great swampy habita
Devonian Flora; Adaptation of Spore bearing plants (Ferns)
Sea scorpian that migrated onto land
Subphylum: Eurypterids
Started to fill swampy moist environments
Subphylum: Insecta
- 3 chambered heart
- fortified skeleton (rib cage, spinal column, girdle, and limbs)
- Lungs
- Skeletal structures are similar
- Return to the water
- Young are aquatic with gill structures
Amphibians evolution from the fish
- Enclosed land egg
- Leathery shell
- young hatched in an essentailly adult form
- Contained yolk, embryonic sac, and garbage can
Adaptation of the Amniotic egg (Evolution of the reptiles)
The amniotic egg freed tetrapids from their reproductive dependency on water bodies. One of the earliest amniotes of the Perman was
Sail back reptiles
- top Permian Carnivore
- Sail
- Temperature regulating device. The purpose of the sail was to regulate temperature.
- Precursor to Endothermy
- Well developed jaws
- Hairy animals and warm blooded
- Mammal like reptiles of the late Permian.
- Skeleton is mammal like.
- Well developed jaw.
- Limbs closer to the body.
- Some were hairy ancestors to the Mammals.
- Endothermic?
Subclass: Therapsids
- True seed bearing plant
- Seed is "naked" but protected from desiccation
- Allowed the Softwood Confers to proliferate inland as great forests
Permian Period Flora; Phylum; Gymnosperms
- Taxanomic Units. When did they level off?
- The mother of "Mass Extinctions"
- 90% of marine life
- Gymnos on the rise
- Pangaea
- Volcanism - "Greenshouse"
End of Permian; Permian Extinction
Where do jaws evolve
Gill arches or the mandibular arches
What period of time do jaws come from. Evolution of jaw was in the ____ period
- Large jawed fish of the Devonian Period
- Fish was armored plated
- Top Carnivore of the Devonian Seas
- Mitochondria
- Chloroplasts
- Cambrian
- Ordivician
Early Paleozoic
- Sillurian
- Devonian falls into the middle....
middle Paleozoic
- Carboniferous
- Permian
Late Paleozoic
This happened in which era? -- Rifting of Protopangea
- Continents alighned along equatorial belt
- Laurentia (N. America), Baltica, Gondwanaland
Early Paleozioc (Cambrian & Ordivician)
This took place at which period of time?
- Vast Epicontinental Seas
- Equator trends across N. America
- Ideal Conditions for the "Explosion of Life"
- Land was devoid of life (barren rock)
Early Paleozoic; Paleogeography of Laurentia in the Cambrian Period
Closing of the ancient N. Atlantic Ocean (Iapetus Ocean)
- Originates in Scandinavia through Scotland and Greenland
- Builds the Caledonides mountains (European mountain building)
Calendonian Orogeny;Middle Paleozioc (Sillurian & Devonian)
- Collision of Greenland with SE Canada and NE US (Baltica and Laurentia)
- forms new continent called Laurussia
Acadian Orgeny; Middle Paleozioc (Sillurian & Devonian)
- "Age of the Fish"
- Equatorial Seas
- Swamp environments with Ferns
- Insects moving onto land
Devonian - Middle Paleozoic
This happens is the late...
- Collision of Gondwanaland with Laurussia forming Pangaea
Late Paleozoic (Carboniferous & Permian)
This happened in the...
Collision of Africa with the East Coast of USA forming the Smokey Mountains of the Appalachians
Late Paleozoic; Allegheny (Appalachian)Orogeny
This happened in the late..
Collision of South America with the Gulf Coast States foming the Ouchita Mountains of Arkansas
Paleozoic; Ouchita Orogeny
- Collision of Texas with South America
- Marathon forms the West Texas Permian Basin Region which happened during the Permian
Marathon Orogeny; Late Paleozoic
- Rifting of ProtoPangea happens when..
Early Paleozoic
This happened in the middle...
- Caledonian Orogeny
- Acadian Orogeny
Middle Paleozoic (Laurentia collides with Baltica forming Laurussia)
- Allegheny (Appalachian) Orgeny (Africa & USA)
- Ouchita Orogeny (South America & Gulf Coast)
- Marathon Orogeny (Texas with South America)
Late Paleozoic (Larussia collides with Gondwana land forming Pangea)
What marked the beginning of the Protozoic?
Nice Sedimentary rocks
What is Crossoptergian of Osteichthyes?
What allowed animals to reproduce on land?
Amniotic Egg
What was responsible for the oxygen in the late Archean?
Africa & USA
Allegheny Orogeny
South America & Gulf Coast
Ouchita Orogeny
Texas & South America
Marathon Orogeny
The gradual increase in oxygen in Earth's early atmosphere is inferred from the presence of:
Banded Iron Formations
Volcanic outgassing was responsible for the formation of the Earth's:
Both atmosphere and hydrosphere
In the 1950's,Stanley Miller (and Harold Urey) produced an apparatus to simulate the Earth's early atmosphere, with sparks of electricity to simulate lightning. What was produced from the atmospheric gases in this apparatus?
Amino Acids
What form of life is found in Shark Bay, Australia, similar to some of the earliest organisms in the Precambrian?
The endosymbiotic theory provides an explanation for the origin of:
During the early Proterozoic, the Precambrian provinces of North America were welded together to form a large continent called?
These larger single-celled organisms have the potential for sexual reproduction and increasing variation. They appeared by about 2.7 to 2.2 billion years ago, and began to diversify about 1.2 to 1.0 by ago, perhaps as a result of oxygen levels reaching a
The evolution of this feature in the Silurian enormously expanded the adaptive range of vertebrates, leading to more varied life styles and new sources of food:
Fossil remains of animals appear in this order (from oldest to youngest) in the geologic record:
Fish, amphibians, reptiles, mammals
It took tens of millions of generations for crossopterygian fishes to evolve into animals that could live on land. The early tetrapods continued to return to the water to lay their eggs. These first land dwelling vertebrates were:
The therapsids were?
Tetrapods with mammal-like traits
The seed plants became dominant in the Late Paleozoic, perhaps because of:
Drier climatic conditions
Identify this Paleozoic fossil organism
These marine animals have two enclosing symmetrical valves. Their shells dominate many Ordovician limestone formations:
The synapsids with sails on their backs, which were possibly used to regulate their body temperatures, were called
The Burgess Shale fauna and Chengjiang fauna are significant because they contain
the remains of animals that lacked hard parts
One group of organisms developed a vascular system to transport water and nutrients, and the ability to stand against the pull of gravity. These adaptations helped them live on land. What type of organisms were they?
First land plants
By the Ordovician Period, Gondwanaland moved toward the South Pole. This led to what event that occurred in Africa?
During the Early Paleozoic, the continent that corresponds most closely to North America was called
During the Early Paleozoic, the ocean that lay roughly in the position of the Atlantic Ocean was called
During the Early Paleozoic, Laurentia was located here on the globe
On the equator
The supercontinent that assembled during the Late Paleozoic was called
This orogeny occurred in the Devonian as North America (Laurentia) and Europe (Baltica) collided to form Laurasia
This orogeny occurred as Gondwana collided with Laurasia (North America and Europe) during the Late Carboniferous

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