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modification of behavior in response to experience in the environment; a behavioral change resulting from experience
the pattern of spacing among indiviuals within geographic population boundaries
explanations that focus on the evolutionary rationale for a phenomenom, such as why it might be adaptive
learning by observing and mimicking the behavior of others
life history
the series of events from birth through reproduction and death
a zone of the ocean where light penetration is effectively zero, and neither vision nor photosynthesis are possible
density dependent
any characteristic that varies according to an increase in population density, example: mortality rates that increase with an increase in population size
usually defined as the "average weather" or more rigourously, as the statistical description in terms of the mean and variability of temperature, precipitations, and wind, etc. over a period of time ranging from months to thousands or millions of years
kin selection
a phenomenon of inclusive fitness, used to explain altruistic behavior between related individuals, example: an individuals alleles may benefit more from that individual sacrificing itself for its kin that by selfishly saving itself
social behavior
any kind of interaction between two or more animals, usually of the same species
a group of interacting individuals belonging to one species and living in the same geographic area that therefore cna potentially interbreed
the shallow zone of the ocean where land meets water, which is alternately covered or exposed by the tied
behavior that is largely genetically programmed appears to be performed in virtually the same way by all individuals of a species
search images
a mechanism that animals use to scan areas for a particular size and color of food, especially use of certain sign stimuli
circadian rhythms
a physiological cycle of about 24 hours that is present in all eukaryotic organisms and that persits even in the absence of external cues
describing a dispersion pattern in which individuals are spaced in a patternless, inpredictable way
surviorship curves
a plot of the number of members of a cohort that are still at each age; one way to represent age-specific mortality
the acquired ability to associate one stimulus with another, also called classical conditioning
the entire portion of Earth inhabited by life; the sum of all the planet's ecosystems
dominance hierarchies
a linear "pecking order" of animals, where position dictates characteristic social behaviors
all the living organisms that are part of the environment
ecosystem ecology
the integrated study of abiotic and biotic components of ecosystems and their interactions within an ecosystem framerwork
describing a disperion patter in which individuals are evenly distributed in space , example exaclty one per square meter
a subfield of ecology that deals with the dynamics of species populations and how these populations interact with teh environment
carrying capacity
the maximum population size that can be supported by the available resources symbolized as K
food obtaining behavior
a biological discipline which studies the adaptation of organism's physiology to environmental conditions
a change in activity or turning rate in response to a stimulus, that does not necessarily correspond to the direction of that stimulus, e.g. turning rate increases, but the direction of each turn is random in direction
places where organisms live; environmental situations in which organisms live
a point of reference for orientation during navigation
sign stimuli
an external sensory stimulus that triggers a fixed action pattern
an ecological measure of the number of individuals per unit of space (area, volume, etc.)
sign stimuli
an external sensory stimulus that triggers a fixed action pattern
the regular back and forth movement of animals between two geographic areas at particular times of the year
non-living parts of an ecosystem, such as rocks, soil and water bodies and atmposhere
demographic transition
a shift from zero population growth in which birth rates and death rates are high to zero population growth characterized instead of low birth and death rates
spatial learning
modificaftion of behavior based on experience of the spatial structure of the environment
any factor affecting a population that has the same effect, regardless of population density, example: a tsunami that kills all members of a population in a certain area, regardless of how many of them are present
an ecosystem intermediate between an aquatic one and a terrestrial one
behavior that reduces an individuals fitness while increasing the fittness of another individual
a mating relationship wherein one partner mates with multiple other partners of the opposite sex, but each of those partners mates only with the one.
a mating relationship wherein one male and one female mate only with each other
inclusive fitness
encompasses conventional Darwinian fitness with the addition of behaviors that contribute to an organisms individual fitness through altruism
describing a dispersion pattern in which individuals are aggregate in patches
the immediate explanation for a phenomemon, e.g. a stimulus such as environmental stimuli that triggers a behavior
an area that an individual or individuals defend and from which other members of the same species are usually excluded
the study of social behavior based on evolutionary theory
population ecology
the study of the disturbance, abundance, demography, and interactions between coexisting population
a very simple type of learning that involves a loss of responsiveness to stimuli that convey little or no information
exponential population growth
the geometric increase of a population as it grows in an ideal, unlimited environment
a zone of the ocean where light penetration is too low for photosynthesis, byt vision is still possible for some species
agnostic behavior
a type of behavior involving a non-lethal contest of some kind that determines which competitor gains access to some resource, such as good or mates
a mating relationship wherein each individual mates with multiple other individuals, and forms no exclusive pair bond
fixed action pattern
a sequence of behavioral acts that is essentially unchangeable and usually carried to completeion once initiated
populations that maximize r, the intrinsic rate of increase
a type of learned behavior with a signifcant innate component, acquired during a limited critical period
the ability of an anima's nervous system to percieve, store, process, and use information obtained by its sensory receptors
a behavior that causes a change in behavior in another animal
the area of ocean past the continental shelf, with areas of open water often reaching to very great depths
logistic population growth
a model describing population growth that levels off as population size approaches carrying capacity
the phenomenon of reproductive specializations found in some animals, where a large group of sterile colony memebers carry out specialized takss and care for the few reproductive memebers, most familiar examples are insects: bees and wasps
activity (muscular or otherwise) triggered by a stimulus, governing interactions with the environment or other individuals
the bottom surfaces of aquatic environments
movement toward or away from a stimulus
cognitive maps
a representation winthin the nervous system of spatial relations among objects in an aniamls environment
life tables
a table of data summarizing mortality in a population
one of the world's major ecosystems, classified according to the predominant vegetation and characterized by adaptations of organisms to that particular environment
problem solving
inventive behavior that arises in response to new situation
sustainable resource management
a management policy in which long term resource viability is emphasized instead of short-term economic gain
a zone of the ocean where light penetration is high enough for photosynthesis
maximum sustained yields
a method of setting harvest limits such that produces a consitent yield is produced without forcing a population into decline
the area where a freshwater stream or river merges with the ocean
optimal foraging theory
the basis for analyzing behavior as a compromise of feeding costs versus feeding/benefits, anticipating that animals will attempt to maximize energy obtained as a function of time and/or energy spent
populations that maximize the carrying capacity of their environment

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