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Unit 1 Biology


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density independent
birth/death rate doesn't change with population density
deep sea hydrothermal vents
mid-ocean ridges
a type of animal, usually parasites, that can transfer pathogens by taking them from animals and inserting them into humans
food chain
the transfer of food energy up the trophic levels (primary producers- primary consumers- secondary, tertiary, and quaternary, consumers- decomposers)
reproductive table
fertility schedule
a parasite that feeds and lives on the exterior of its host
marine benthic zones
sea-floor below the surface waters of the costal zone and the offshore, pelagic zone
non-equilibrium model
describes most communities as constantly changing after being affected by disturbances
competitive exclusion
the local elimination of the inferior competitor
very deep benthic
applying the top-down model to certain ecosystems in order to improve them (intentionally adding more high level consumers to a community or ecosystem in order to improve it)
a group of populations that live close enough together to interact with each other
interspecific interactions
interactions between 2 or more different types of species (includes competition, predation, herbivory, and symbiosis
bottom-up model
V-H, or vegetation and bottom trophic levels have an influence on higher trophic levels (herbivores)
long-term weather conditions in an area
a group of populations of different species in an area
habitat that has water at least some of the time and supports plants adapted to water-saturated soil
plot of temperature precipitation
photic zone
sufficient light for photosynthesis
law of conservation of matter
matter can not be created nor destroyed
study of interactions between organisms and the environment
top-down model
H-V, or herbivores and top trophic levels have an influence on lower trophic levels
aphotic zone
little light penetrates
landscape ecology
factors controlling exchanges of energy, materials and organisms across multiple ecosystems
layers from top to bottom of a terrestrial biome
study of statistics of a population
production efficiency
percentage of energy stored in assimilated food that is not used for respiration
logistic population growth
per capita rate of increase -> 0 as carrying capacity
combination of biotic and abiotic factors
primary succession
where the process begins in a virtually lifeless area where soil has not yet emerged
tertiary consumers
carnivores that eat other carnivores
eutrophic lakes
nutrient rich, oxygen poor
the total mass of all individuals in a population
trophic structure
the feeding relationships between organisms
a +/- interaction when individuals of 2 or more species live in direct and intimate contact with each other
limiting nutrient
element that must be added for production to increase
movement of individuals away from their area of origin
secondary production
amount of chemical energy in consumers' food that is converted to their own new biomass during a given time period
temperate grasslands
plains and prairies
greenhouse effect
CO2 in the atmosphere makes the world retain heat energy
green world hypothesis
terrestrial herbivores are held in check by a variety of factors (eg plant defenses, competition)
refers to a +/- interaction where the predator kills and eats the prey
detritivores or decomposers
consumers that get their energy from detritus
trophic efficiency
percentage of production transferred from one trophic level to the next
limnetic zone
further from shore
turnover time
standing crop divided by production per day
an event (storm, fire) that changes a community
found in mid-atlantic costal regions
linked local populations
a behavior pattern in animals, defend their territory
Mullerian mimicry
when two unpalatable species resemble each other
mark-recapture method
used to estimate the size of populations
dominant species
the species that is the most abundant or has highest biomass
ecological succession
the cycle of different species emerging or replacing the previous set of species in a community after a disturbance has occurred there
interspecific competition
a -/- interaction when individuals of different species compete for a resource that limits their growth and survival
relative abundance
the proportion each species represents in a community
global ecology
how the regional exchange of energy and materials influences the functioning and distribution of organisms across the biosphere
a +/0 interspecific interaction where one species gains and neither helps nor harms the other
nonliving organic material
repeated reproduction (iteroparity)
reproduce more than once
things such as sewage and fertilizer run into lakes, adding large amounts of nutrients to the lakes, bacteria and algae grow rapidly, ultimately reducing oxygen in the water
survivorship curve
plot of the number of cohorts still alive at each age
food web
food chains linked together (the interactions between the food chains)
permanently frozen layer of soil that restricts the growth of plant roots
northern coniferous forest
largest terrestrial biome, woodland creatures
the number of individuals per unit area
character displacement
the tendency for characteristics to be more unalike between 2 sympatric populations (populations that are geographically close to one another) than between 2 allopatric populations (populations that are geographically farther away from each other)
gross primary production
amount of light energy that is converted to chemical energy by photosynthesis per unit time
biological magnification
toxins become more harmful because they become more concentrated in successive trophic levels of a food web
tropical dry forests
precipitation is highly seasonal
stratification of aquatic biomes
layering of aquatic environments
density dependent
birth/death rate does change with population density
carrying capacity
max population size an area can support
species richness
the number of different species in a community
life history
3 variables: reproduction begins, how often reproduces, how many offspring
cryptic coloration
camouflage, an adaptation of prey to avoid being spotted
the area of intergradation between terrestrial biomes
warm year round, but more seasonal variation
primary producers
the tropic level that ultimately supports all others (aka autotrophs)
climate in the global, regional and local scale
global ecosystem
hot and cold waters mix
littoral zone
shallow waters close to shore
population ecology
analyzes factors that affect population size and how and why it changes over time
a mosaic connected by ecosystems
resource partitioning
the differentiation of niches that enables similar species to coexist in a community
age structure
number of individuals of each age in a population
pattern of spacing among individuals within a population
coral reefs
formed by the calcium carbonate skeletons of corals. inhabited by many organisms
movement of individuals out of a populations
oligotrophic lakes
nutrient poor, oxygen rich
ecological footprint
land/water that is required by each person to produce resources
tropical rain forests
rainfall is almost constant
species diversity
the variety of different kinds of organisms
specific climates, like under a log
population ecology
study of populations in nature
30 degrees north and south latitude
secondary succession
when an existing community has been cleared by some disturbance that leaves the soil intact, allowing new species to inhabit the area
a +/- interaction in which an organism eats pants or algae, (predators are mostly invertebrates)
oceanic pelagic zone
vast realm of blue, open water
a parasite that lives inside the body of its host
ecological niche
the sum of a species' use of the biotic and abiotic resources in its environment
zoonotic pathogens
pathogens that are transferred from other animals to humans directly or through intermediate species called vectors
actual evapotranspiration
annual amount of water transpired by plants and evaporated from a landscape
zero population growth
birth rates and death rates are the same
intermediate disturbance hypothesis
moderate levels of disturbance can create conditions that foster greater species diversity than low or high levels of disturbance
apososmatic coloration
warning coloration, an adaptation of prey to veer away predators
separates warm and cool layers of water in oceans and lakes
invasive species
organisms that take hold outside their native range
great ocean conveyor belt
water is warmed at equator, flows to north atlantic where it cools, becomes dense and sinks
organismal ecology
how an organism's structure, physiology and behavior meet the challenges posed by its enviornment
benthic zone
lowest aquatic zone, occupied by benthos
secondary consumers
carnivores that eat herbivores
primary consumers
energetic hypothesis
the hypothesis that the length of a food chain is limited by the inefficiency of energy transfer along the chain
community ecology
examines how interactions between species affect community structure and organization
influx of new individuals from other areas
a community in an area and the factors they interact with
an event such as a natural disaster, overgrazing, or human activity that changes a community by removing organisms from it or altering resource availability
evapotranspiration model
the model displaying the evaporation of water from soil plus the transpiration of water from plants in a community
population dynamics
interactions between biotic an abiotic factors that cause variation in population
Shanon diversity (H)
an index to calculate diversity: H= - [ (Pa ln Pa) + (Pb ln Pb) + (Pc ln Pc) + ... ] where a, b, and c are types of species, P is the relative abundance of each species, and ln is the natural logarithm
ecosystem ecology
energy and chemical interactions between organisms and the environment
net primary production
primary production minus the energy used by the primary producers for respiration
a group of individuals the same age
transition area between a river and sea
keystone species
not necessary abundant species but are important because of their niches
big bang reproduction (semelparity)
reproduce 1 time
exponential population growth
population increase under ideal conditions
abiotic factors
chemical and physical factors that influence distribution of organisms
a group of individuals of the same species living in an area
biogeochemical cycles
natural cycle of processing substances that includes both abiotic and biotic processes
disease-causing microorganisms and viruses
life tables
age-specific summaries of survival patterns of a population
in arctic
abyssal zone
2000-6000 feet below surface
biotic factors
all organisms that are part of the individual's environment
temperate broad leaf forest
found mostly in the northern hemisphere, distinct vertical layers, trees
Batesian mimicry
when a harmless species that is prey mimics a harmful species of prey (usually in appearance)
organisms that live in the benthic zone
a form of symbiosis where one species receives nutrients from another species' body (the host body)
a +/+ interspecific interaction where both species have the benefits
dynamic stability hypothesis
the hypothesis that long food chains are less stable than short food chains
an organism that seeks nutrients from other bodies, and eventually kills its host

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