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SDLC phase 1.
Plan (identify problems and opportunities)
Pilot Conversion
test one part of organization
Range Check (data validation)
(determines that data is within the acceptable range)
common key field
IN relational database management systems Data in several files are related through the use of a
project plan.
DONT CONFUSE WITH SCOPE The plan specifies the project's goal and specifies all of the activities that must be completed for the project to succeed.
Distributed Structure
enable each user to customize their technology tools. Each network entity contains its own software and configuration settings.
is a collection of data
SDLC phase 3.
design the system
Component Reusability (in object oriented programs)
omponent reusability The ability to quickly build a program by utilizing ready-to-use, specific purpose modules
Scope of a project
The sum total of all project products and their features
large units of text (data type)
The top layer made of one or more data files (composed of from top to bottom, Data files, to records, to fields defined by field names, to characters to bits
Alphabet Check (data validation)
for text data check to make sure no numbers)
Enterprise Computing
is the use of technology, information systems, and computers within a business.
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP):
Software that integrates all facets of a business into a single computer system
Direct Conversion
switch to new system at once and turn off old system - most risky
Web Portals
: Web sites that offer an array of resources and services are called Web portals. AOL was one of the first portals.
Letters, numbers, and symbols (represented by a byte) (above bits in database layer below fields)
Data Maintnence
refers to the procedures for adding, updating, and deleting records.
System's Analyst
Are computer and problem-solving professionals who determine an organization's information system needs (they talk to all the departments and communicate back to the programmers what people need to make the organization work)
Flow Charts in phase 2 of PDlC
show the logic of program (how it works)
Areas that contain data identified by field names (above characters in database layers below record)
Data Mining
Is a data-exploration technique Is used to find unknown patterns of data
refers to an object's capacity to "pass on" its characteristics to its subclasses.
Request for Proposal (RFP)
request for a vendor to write a proposal for the design, installation, and configuration of the information system
is a program that changes source code to object code. (prodcues source code)
translates source code one line at a time and executes the instructions. (uses one code at a time and moves on)
Data Validity
defines acceptable input ranges for each field Types of data validation are: Alphabetic check Numeric check Range check Consistency check Completeness check
Programming Languages
are artificial languages created to tell the computer what to do.
Second generation of programming language (
Uses brief abbreviations for program instructions Abbreviations are called mnemonics
Very large objects (data type)
Data Mart
support one division of an organization rather than an entire firm. (similar to a date warehouse only not the whole company just one division)
support information needs of different levels of management
Operationally feasible
can be created with organization's available resources
Logical Data
Only "yes" or "no" answers are allowed (data type)
a business organization
Know Six phases of PDLC
Defining the problem Designing the program Coding the program Testing and debugging the program Formalizing the solution Implementing and maintaining the program
Avoidance of data redundancy
refers to avoiding the repetition of data.
are units of information that contain data as well as methods that process and manipulate data.
Field Names
(Examples: First Name; Address; City); Group of characters Define Fields
Technically Feasible
can be created with existing, proven technology
Single point of failure (SPOF)
is when a failure of any one component will cause a malfunction in an entire system.
SDLC phase 4.
implement the system
Numeric Check (Data validation)
for calculation and value check to make sure numeric only)
five phases of SDLC
1. Plan 2. Analyze 3. Design 4. Implement 5. Maintain
Data Files
Contain related group of records (above records in database layer below database)
Information System
is designed to bring data, computers, procedures, and people together to manage information important to an organization's mission.
Web-based integration
is the latest trend in database software, Information is stored in databases that are available through the Internet.
Knowledge Management System
are used to capture knowledge created by employees and make it available when needed.
Specially phrased question used to access specific information (to get specific info from the database)
Five Generations of programming language
Machine languages Assembly languages Procedural languages Problem-oriented languages Natural languages
Interoperability is the ability of software and hardware from different vendors to share data. All computers on a network can interact seamlessly.
Data Security
makes sure data are not accessible to unauthorized users. Data is also protected from loss due to equipment failure.
Gantt Chart
s created to provide a timeline of activities and track completion times. (tracks progress of the development of system (project) )
Database Management Systems (DBMS)
Contain multiple files or tables (a little more complex than file management programs because you have so many files linked together)
First generations of programming language (machine language)
is first generation and Is the only language the computer understands without translation
key field or primary key
The key field must be a unique entry such as a social security number or student ID.
Acceptance Testing
users evaluate the system to see whether it meets their needs and whether it functions correctly. in phase 4
scope creep
Avoid this uncontrolled changes in a project's scope
Contain a group of fields (above field in database layer below data file)
Application Testing
programs are tested individually and then tested together. in phase 4
Scalability is how well a hardware or software system can adapt to increased demands. Scalability ensures an organization's systems won't become obsolete as user needs and demands grow
Maintenence Centralized vs. Distributed
Centralized structures are easier and less costly to maintain than distributed structures.
Consistency Check (data validation)
(like entering in your email address twice to compare fields to make sure the equal each other
Customer Relationship Management (CRM):
CRM software tracks interactions between a company and its customers with a focus on customer retention.
Economically feasible
Can be created with available fiscal resources
Data Integrity
is the validity of the data.
Entity Relationship Diagram
are used to describe the different entities of the information system and their relationships
Default Value
Pre-defined values such as today's date (data type)
Third-Generation of Programming Languages (Procedural languages)
Are high-level languages that tell the computer what to do and how to do it Use a compiler or interpreter to translate code
data that has been processed in a meaningful and useful way.
Difference between data and information
Data doesn't become information until it is processed
Joint application development (JAD) and computer-aided software engineering (CASE) help improve the design phase.
Database Programs
enable people to add, sort, group, summarize, and print data
Extensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL)
: XBRL uses standardized formatting to allow public and private enterprises to publish and share financial information with each other across all computer platforms and the Internet
File Management Programs:
Create flat files containing one file or table Files can not be linked to other files Are easy to use and customize (not as complex as database management system)
Pseudo Code in phase 2 of PDlC
alternative to flow charts (it uses words and not symbols )
Online Analytical Process
enables managers to import up-to-the-minute reports from transaction databases. for use in decision support
Systems Development Life Cycle
The SDLC is a model used to improve the quality of information systems by providing an organized approach to problem solving. The core idea of SDLC is to "Ensure that each step is performed properly before going to the next one." Systems have a life cycle, accomplish their purpose and end
Decision Support System
enables a manager to retrieve information that can't be supplied by fixed and predetermined MIS reports
Phased conversion
Bring people onto the system over different time periods
Upgrading Centralized vs. Distributed
Centralized structures are easier and less costly to upgrade than distributed structures.
Non-textual data (data type)
Expert Systems
are systems that deal with expert knowledge in a particular area.
Data Flow Diagrams
show how data move throughout existing system.
Business processes
activities that have an identifiable output and add value to an organization's customers.
Characteristics of a good database
Data integrity Data independence Avoidance of data redundancy Data security Data maintenance
training centralized vs. distributed
Much easier is centralized because everyone has same software
Centralized Structure (I.e Computer Lab)
are managed by a central IT department. Each network entity contains the same software and configuration settings.
SDLC phase 2.
analyze and document existing programs
Parallel Conversion
run old and new system at the same time to test answers - safest, most expensive
To avoid mistakes in system's development
Documentation is required throughout all phases.
Disaster Recovery
Hot Site - a backup facility that is kept in a state of readiness at all times (most expensive option) Cold Site - a backup facility that is made operational once the disaster occurs, not ready before then
is a collection of components organized into a functioning whole to accomplish a goal.
SDLC phase 5
. Maintain and Support the system
Data Warehousing
Supplements DBMSs by bringing together all data into one huge database Organizes management's decision-making process Uses a technique called drill-down to view performance data of the entire company
Data Independence
refers to how data is stored so that it can be used with different types of application programs. It also refers to the separation of the data in a database to control forms and reports.
Know a transaction processing system (TPS)
handles an organization's accounting needs, including purchasing, sales & payroll.
Completeness check data validation
make sure no blanks left in the field)
Prototyping tool
make a protype of project and show interrelation and how other parts of the system could be affected
First true cross-platform programming language (works on Macs, windows, etc.)
Fourth Generation Languages
Languages for getting information out of databases Fourth-generation languages are nonprocedural. They do not force programmers to follow procedures to produce results. "Problem-oriented languages"
The lowest layer in a database made of 1s and 0s
Request for Quotation (RFQ)
request for a vendor to quote a price for specific components of the information system.
Relational database management systems
are the most widely used type of DBMS.(linked by common key fields)
Post Implementation System Review
determines if the new system has met its goals.
Structure Charts in phase 2 of PDlC
show the top-down design (how it is set up)
any unorganized text, graphics, sounds, or videos (has yet to be processed)
Object Oriented Programs
Relies on component reusability The ability to quickly build a program by utilizing ready-to-use, specific purpose modules Eliminates the distinction between programs and data Uses objects that contain data and procedures Ex: Visual Basic and C++

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