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History Exam Review

Whole review packet


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tax collectors
This is the treaty of Charlemagne's grandsons. They are dividing the empire into three. (Charles-France; Louis-Germany; Lothair-The land stopping at the Papal States [king of the Romans])
The Treaty of Verdun
In 800, the Pope names Charlemagne emperor of the Romans. This shows that the church has more power than the king.
800 A.D.
The twelve tables that the rules were written down on. These were written on bronze tablets after the plebeians fought for more power in politics.
the 12 tablets
Knights were vassals who owed allegiance to the king. Chivalry was the code in which knights were supposed to act (respect for women, manners, etc.). It became the basis of manners.
Knighthood and the code of Chivalry
Creates common law, grand jury, and petit jury
Henry II accomplishments
The god of agriculture
The roman spirit worshiped as the spirit of man because he was so smart. [Hence: genius means smart]
They were a group of people who wore red and their job was to choose a holy Pope. This was established in 1000.
College of Cardinals
Churches shaped in a cross. Thick walls and columns, massive, heavy roofs, small windows, round arches. Located in southern Europe, especially in Italy, dark, alters had gold on them to reflect the light of the sun
Philip establishes this. It was like the Parliament and consisted of nobility, clergy, and townspeople to help with governing.
Estates General
He wrote the Aeneid, an epic poem based on the Greek poem, Odyssey.
it was a political system that provided protection. The king gave out land to his nobles and they had farms that Serfs worked on.
Feudalism and relationships of people
He was also a Friar who encourage education.
St. Dominic
a building were chariot race were taken place
Circus Maximus
There would be a checkered table cloth with little boxes on each square that would have the tax collections of every person. As the tax counter would count taxes, he became known as the exchequer
out side of Carthage- Hannibal vs. Scipio. During the 2nd Punic war, Scipio wins.
Battle of Zama
A place of worship of the gods.
The Pantheon
Allied with Caesar and Crassus. He was driven out of the country in 48 B.C. when defeated by Caesar at Pharsalus, Greece.
The political representatives of the plebeians in government.
Castile, Argon, Granada, and Portugal
Four areas of the Iberian Peninsula in 1400's
Manorialism was an economic system that involved fiefs. It was between noblemen and serfs.
The stories of people on a pilgrimage to Canterbury to see the place where Thomas Becket died. The stories they tell each other for entertainment. Written by Geoffrey Chaucer
The Canterbury Tales
Primgenture- giving inheiritance to the first born son. The little brother would have to have something so the older brother would could buy him a position in the church. The people in the church were not holy so the church became corrupt and needed reforms.
How was the church and feudalism connected?
When Hannibal and his forces beat the Romans, they did not want to admit defeat. So he lead ships down Africa and surprised the Carthaginians. He burned Carthage and sold the rest of the population that didn't die into slavery. He also put salt in the crops so nothing could be planted there.
This was the ceremony in which you pledged allegiance to the king and said you would provide him with soldiers when at war.
Gladiators were poor people who fought in the arenas against each other or wild animals, until death. This was a form of entertainment.
Who were the gladiators?
people who die for a cause, like Christianity
the common language
similarities to US law - They had a senate (300 members) who advised the consuls , debated and proposed laws, and approved contracts for constructing roads, temples, and defenses. The executive branch lead by two patricians called consuls (consulted with each other before acting). Did the day to day affairs.
Roman Law
1. to be in poverty by donating money to the church and poor; 2. pledge your obedience to the church; 3. pledge chastity (no sex)
Three vows of the clergy
It began in Italy because that was where trade came back from the Middle East.
Where did the Renaissance begin and why?
She gets visions from God saying that she can defeat the English. She leads the army in Orleans and the French win. A nobleman didn't like that she was a woman ones he found out so he gave her up to the English and they burned her at stake.
Joan of Arcs story
If you committed heresy, you could say that the devil made you do it and that you don't believe in what you did or said. If you didn't, and stood against your word, the church would give you to the government and torture you until you said the devil made you do it. Examples: put you naked in a cage in a dungeon until you changed your mind; put under a pendulum; lower you on a spike. The church never tortured.
Romulus is building a wall around a city on top of a hill overlooking the Tiber River. His twin, Remus, comes and jumps the wall and Romulus kills him and finishes building the wall. Rome gets its name from Romulus.
Romulus and Remus
The Franks were invaders of Rome from Poland and Russia.
The crusades bringing back trade, the independent city states, and curiosity.
What caused it?
He was a military leader as a teenager. Then he joined consul and later made a triumvirate with Pompey and Crassus. By 50 B.C. it was broken: Crassus died and Pompey told Caesar to back out but he didn't and ended up conquering Italy and driving out Pompey. The people he conquered became part of the Roman Empire.
Julius Caesar
Richard- English Leader during the third crusade; Fredrick Barbarossa- German leader
Richard, Philip Augustus and Frederick Barbarossa
1. heavier plow; 2. collar harness for horses; 3. three field system
Three Medieval improvements of agriculture
There were walls around the cities, all accessible to water, very noisy, no sanitation, diseases spread easily, stores on bottom and houses on the top
Describe the bourg in the late middle ages
waterways that were built all around the city to carry water to different houses
When they conquered cities, they took their citizens and took them as slaves.
How did Rome get slaves?
They were out in society and talked with regular people.
Secular Clergy- Priests
The King of the Gods
The Jews were massacred, Jerusalem was seized and all Muslims and Jews were killed.
Treatment of Enemy, Byzantine Empire and Jews by the Crusaders
This emphasized reason as well as faith and the interpretation of Christian doctrine.
The bible states that Peter is the rock and the church will be based on him and he builds a church in Rome. The Bishop of Rome thinks that he should be superior because Rome was more important, so he becomes Pope.
Bishop of Rome- Becomes Pope
He was the Pope at the time and in 1095 he calls for the first crusade.
Urban II 1095
He was Charles Martel's son. He was king and the Pope asked him for help against the Lombard's who were invading. Pepin helps him and defeats them and in turn, the Pope names him king of the Franks. Then Pepin gives the Pope land called the Papal States.
Pepin the Short
The god of war
He preaches about what Wycliffe did and is closer to Rome. The Pope & wants to talk to him and promises safe passage. He went to Rome in chains and was executed at the stake.
Jan Hus and the hussites
Spanish Inquisition gets rid of the Jewish people. The Muslims are kicked out of Spain. Columbus sets sail for India.
Three important things that happen to Spain in 1492
The archbishop of Canterbury- He used to go out and party and drink with Henry II but he found god and told Henry to stop drinking. He was murdered by knights because they thought they were doing it as orders of the king.
Thomas Becket
epic poem fighting the evil
The pages that Monks copied. He would draw pages on it and make it fancy to make it less boring.
Illuminated Manuscripts of the Monks
He sets up royal courts instead of feudal courts which trialed people fairly. This made people think that the government wanted to protect them. He says that only the king can mint money that way everyone had the same, fair currency. He was such a good person that when he died, he became a saint.
St. Louis IX- Accomplishments
Adopted by Julius Caesar, triumvirate between Mark Antony, Octavian, and Lepidus.
Augustus Caesar- Octavian
Carthaginian ruler who took troops and elephants across the Alps to attack the Romans. Most of his troops and elephants died while crossing the Alps, but they still were able to defeat the Romans in the battle of Cannae.
The god of love and beauty
Treason against the church
The king that Joan comes to say that she can help defeat the English.
Charles of France
The leader of the Muslims in the third crusade and captured Jerusalem in 1187.
It is evertyhing east of Greece. It helps with trade to Rome
Byzantine Empire (location & good things it does)
A city on the coast of France that the English use the cannon first. Cannons were used to break down walls, not kill people.
Calais- Cannon
Slave who led a slavery uprising but was unsuccessful.
He was someone who owed allegiance to the king.
The ruler of the waters
He was the first of the Carolingian rulers. He doubled the size of the empire. He loved learning and had people come to his palace to learn to read and write.
publican tax collectors were replaced with permanent government employees, new roads and public buildings, and was a patron of the arts. He becomes the first emperor.
Octavian's reforms
Seized the French throne from the Carolingians. He controlled Paris and a strip of land between the Seine and Loire Rivers in northern France. He established the Captains.
Hugh Capet
Ruled France from 1180-1223. He was 15 when he became king and was determined to strengthen the monarchy. He doubled the land and took away the nobles in government by gaining more land and keeping it to himself. He put locals in charge of his newly conquered land.
Philip II (Philip Augustus)
He was the older son who went of to the crusades and left the thrown to his little brother, John.
Richard the Lionhearted
He was a friar (some one who said that the church wasn't bad) and he loved nature and animals. He wanted people to appreciate what God has given them.
St. Francis of Assisi
Cultural Diffusion- they got back literature back from Greece and Rome again. They had statues of people who looked like people, horse harnesses, magnetic compass from China, sailing ships and methods, maps, siege techniques, new weapons, silk and spices. TRADE INCREASED.
Long Range Effects of the Crusades
1. he wrote Yes and No which talks about religion and logic could combine together; 2. writes Summa theological which was a summary of religious views and the combination of logic
1. Abelard and 2. Aquinas
where people got their knowledge from
He was blonde and increased the size of the French Empire by going to war with England and gaining land in southern France. He starts to tax the church and clergy.
Philip the Fair
1. medieval town 2. French town person 3. English town person 4. German town person
1. Burgs 2.Bourgeoisie 3.Burgesses 4.Burghers
They win one crusade. The very first one.
Successes of the Crusades? Military
The Pope is the leader of the Church who is sent messages directly from God.
Head of the Church
The donation of Pepin is when he gave the Pope the Papal States.
Donation of Pepin
Monks lived in Monasteries where tey worked, raised foods and well water, made their own wine, prayed, meditated, taught about the bible, and made medicines. Nuns lived in convents.
Mayor of the palace is someone who oversaw what the king did. He took care of the day to day affairs of the Merovingian's.
Mayor of the Palace
The Babylonian Captivity- the Pope leaves Rome and moves to France; The Great Schism- there was more than one pope; Simony- selling positions in the church; INDULGENCES- buying your salvation
Reasons for the decline of the Roman Catholic Church in the Late Middle Ages.
When Vesuvius exploded, it ruined the city of Pompeii and it froze the people and the whole city. It gave archeologists a great clue to things about Roman culture.
Mt. Vesuvius and Pompeii
Singing entertainers for money (street performers)
between England and France over land that was in French territory but supposedly owned by England. France wins and gains the land in southern France.
100 years war-between-why
-Universities-Paris, Bologna, Oxford, Pisa - It took place in rented rooms and were opposed by the church because they taught the teachings of Aristotle and Plato which said the opposite of what the church said. They met on regular schedules and you studied law, medicine, and theologian. There were liberal arts colleges which taught you everything and then you could decide which one you wanted to learn in more detail.
The three plow system planted on two fields and let the other one get rich with clovers and nitrogen. Then the next season, the nitrogen-rich field was planted on and so was one of the other previously ones planted on and let the last field get clover rich for the next season.
Improvements to the Manor- plow and three field planting
Vikings (from the north through water into Russia, Normandy, Iceland and Greenland); Muslims-(came from North Africa through the Mediterranean Sea that threatened the Papal States and the coast of France); Magyars- (they moved into the east)
Three invaders during 900
Punic means
They were in regulation, lived in solitude of praying and farming in a Monastery.
Regular Clergy- Monks
The wars between the Punic people of Carthage, Africa and the Romans. (Hannibal and Scipio)
Carthage and the Punic Wars
They were Muslims from central Asia who took Jerusalem. They went into Turkey and when they crossed the Mediterranean they were converted to Islam.
Seljuk Turks- Jerusalem
Medieval means in the middle. It was the in between the Roman Empire and the Renaissance.
Define Medieval
A fief was an area of land given to nobles by the king to farm on and produce goods.
The Goths, the Vandals, the Franks, the Anglo-Saxons
3 groups of barbarian invaders in 400 A.D.
Merchants found bartering impractical.
Barter to money economy
to get land back from the non-Christians- afraid of loosing power so they wanted to run the other people out of Jerusalem
Reason for the Crusades
A Spanish epic. Elcid is the hero and he defeats all of the heroes.
France wins.
He was mayor of the palace while Clovis's sons were fighting and took over the kingdom. He defeated the Muslims at Tours, if he had not defeated them, Christianity would not have survived in Europe.
Charles Martel- Muslims
fighting between gladiators and wild beasts
Uses of the Roman Coliseum
Greek word for messiah
name of the Roman ship that had a grabbling hook used to claw Carthaginian ships and use as a bridge to attack the Carthaginians on their own ships.
The church wanted it, it was against heretics, it benefited the church because it continued to keep people closely bound to the church, and the government carried it out because the church never tortures.
Spanish Inquisition
Italy- Venice, Pisa, and Genoa brought spices from Asia and Europe; Flanders- on the northern coast on the Rhine River; Champagne, Fr.- first trade took place there
Three major trade areas in the late middle ages
It was the head of a monastery.
Written by Dante Alighieri. It is about life, death, and life after death and getting into heaven. The number one reason why not to get into heaven is gossip.
Divine Comedy
It was weak because the nobles always chose poor rulers
Holy Roman Empire- Why was it weak?
There were jousting tournaments. Minstrels were singers and dancers and jugglers who entertained you in between jousting games.
Reformer. wanted changes and he writes about abusing in the church. The go into churches and destroy them. in ENGLAND
John Wycliffe and the Lollards-
Aided the poor, provided jobs for the unemployed, ordered slave-owning landowners to hire more free laborers, founded colonies for the landless, and a new calendar with 365 days in a ear and one extra day every fourth year.
Julius reforms
Business associations needed to gain a monopoly of the local markets for its members. They only traded within themselves. There were strict rules with prices, wagers, and employment.
King John was extremely greedy and he made everyone pay high taxes. One day when hunting with his nobleman, they surrounded him and made him sign the Magna Carta stating that he could not take land or money from the noblemen without their consent.
John I 1215 Magna Carta and Robin Hood
major battle where the Welsh Longbow is first used. It could kill people from far away and needed two people to operate.
Crecy- Longbow
He was the first Merovingian king who becomes a Christian and he had sons and when he died he didn't leave a will as to who would be the next king so the sons fought.
To learn a trade you were first an apprentice for no money, then a journeyman who got paid and did the little jobs, then you presented a craft to the guild and if they thought it was good enough, you became a master
flying buttresses, lots of carving, vaulted and high ceilings, stained glass windows, tall spire, POINTED ARCHES, gargoyles to carry away water
Defeating Harold; The Doomsday book (a census of the people in England and how much the owned and the correct amount of money the had to give in taxes {70%}; The Great Consul (helped him do things); Sheriffs (collect taxes)
Accomplishments of William
They were insane, senile, crazy, and evil. But they did not have much of an effect on the empire.
Julian Emperors
Serfs were peasants who worked on fiefs. They were bound to land they worked on and were not allowed to leave.
The only decent thing is the manuscripts of the Monk.
Medieval Art
Expulsion from the Church. A person who was excommunicated could not take part in the sacraments and was also outlawed from any contact with Christian society.
William was the Duke of Normandy and when Edward the Confessor dies, the next king is either William or Harold Godwinson. So the two fight and William wins and becomes the king.
William of Normandy 1066 Hastings
The nobles and the Pope. The power was with the Pope and with the noblemen.
Who chose the Holy Roman Emperor?
re birth
Renaissance- define
founder of Christianity
missionaries who spread Christianity
Paul and Peter
1. House of lords- nobility and clergy; 2. House of commons-burgesses and knights. Parliament is the form of government for England.
Parliament and two divisions of Parliament
Charters let people control their own affairs
Town Charters
In Italy, one of the bloodies battles of all three Punic wars. It looked like the Carthaginians were going to win because they killed 50,000 Romans, but Scipio forced Hannibal back to Carthage with a threat to burn it down.
Battle of Cannae
They were where rich noblemen lived and served as protection because they were hard to reach and were made of stone.
invented by the Romans and used to build roads.
French hero fighting Rendell the Dragon
Song of Roland
1. baptized A.S.A.P.; 2. Penance- confessing sins weekly and priests would tell you what to do; 3. Communion- taking the Eucharist; 4. Confirmation; 5. Matrimony- married around the age of 13 and having more kids to be Christians; 6. Anointing of the sick- prayers at the end of your life to get you to heaven; 7. holy orders- if you were a priest or a nun (done instead of matrimony)
Sacraments of the Church
The patricians (rich) and the plebeians (poor)
Two classes of early Romans

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