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AIS

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Value Chain Analysis
Inbound Logistics--Operations--Outbound Logistics--Marketing and Sales--Services
Basic REA Ontology
Economic Resources (R)---Economic Events (E), Commitments (C), Business Events (B)---- Internal and External Agents (A)
Economic Resource
Good, right, or service of value under the control of a person
Business Transaction 5 phases
Planning---Identification---Negotiation---Actualization---post-actualization
All processes have 5 common ingredients
entities participating in process--elements decribing steps in process--relationships between the elements--links to other processes---resource characteristics of the elements
Systems Have
inputs---processes---outputs---boundaries---environments
Organizations
are transmutative social entities forming goal-directed structured activity systems
Expert System Benifits
Scarce human expertise---releases human experts formore difficult cases---improved accuracy of judgements---greater consistency and consensus---training of novices---preserves expertise within a firm
Business
trade, commercial transactions or engagements
What is a process
A time dependant sequence of steps governed by a rule called process law
Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics
1. Thou shall not use a computer to harm others--- 2. Thou shall not interfere with other peoples computer work--- 3. Thou shall not snoop around in other peoples computer files--- 4. use the computer to steal--- 5. Thou shall not use a computer to bear false witness---6. Thou shall not copy or use proprietary software for which you have not paid---7. Thou shall not use other peoples computer resources without authorization or proper compensation---8. Thou shall not appropriate other peoples intellectual output--- 9. Thou shall think about social consequences of the program you are writing or the system you are designing--- 10. Thou shall always use a computer in ways that ensure consideration and respect for fellow humans
Three Main Types of Business Processes
acquisition/expense/payment process---conversion process---sales/collection
1:1 Links
collapse the two entities into a single table
Advantages of Database Accounting Systems
Reduce data storage costs---Eliminate data redundancy---eliminate data inconsistencies---avoid duplicate processing---facilitate add, delete, and update maintenece tasks---make data independant applications---centralize data management---centralize data security
Systems Development Life Cycle
Analysis---Design---Development---Implementation---Operation and Maintenance
Processor Technology
System Bus 3 Parts--- 1. Data Bus- transmits data, 2. Address Bus - transmits addreses of memory locations, 3. Control bus - transmits control signals
Data Processing Cycle
Data Input--- Data preparation---Data processing----File maintenance---Information Output
"Most Important Slide Ever"--REA Modeling Steps
1. Identify Significant Events, 2. Identify Related Resources, 3. Identify related internal and external agents, 4. Identify relationships between entities, 5. Specify Optionalities and cardinalities of the relationships, 6. Identify the attributes of the REA entities, 7. Identify information Processes, 8. Design the data repository structure, 9. Implement the design
Economic Agent
Persons and agencies who participate in the economic events of an enterprise or who are responsible for subordinates participation
Semantic Modeling Principle
Data in an information system should model the structure of relevant categories of reality in its application domain
Central Processing Unit (CPU) 3 Parts
1. Arithmetic-logic unit - does the actual computation, 2. Control Unit (synchronizes the internal clock), 3. Register - is a high speed memory location inside te CPU
2 NF
1NF + Full dependence on the entire key
Systems Life Cycle
Creation---Startup---Maturity---Decline
Information processes include...
recording, maintaining, reporting
M:M Links
create a new Link Table with the primary keys from the original tables forming a composite key; add any uniquely
Enterprise
An organization to achieve a particular undertaking
System
a set of elements which operate together to achieve some objective
1 NF
no repeating groups
Business Transaction
A predefined set of activities and processes which is initiated by a person to accomplish an explicitly shared business goal and terminated upon recognition ofone of the agreed conclusions by all the involved persons although some recognition might be explicit. that was long wasnt it?
Meaningful data is...
relevant---reliable---timely---accurate---complete
"Second Most Important Slide Ever" Implementing the Design
1. Create the access tables required by the design, 2. Designate the primary keys, 3. Establish relationships between the tables, 4. Create forms to maintain the tables for each resource and agent, 5. Create (multi-table) forms for event recording processes, 6. Create queries to generate desired information, 7. Develop report formats for the desired reports, 8. Build a custom menu system
Computer Ethics
the analysis of the nature and social impact of computer technology and the corresponding formulation and justification of policies for the ethical use of such technology
Hardware
Input Technology---Processor Technology----Storage Technology----Output Techology
Economic Event
Occurence in time wherein ownership of an economic resource is transferred from one person to another
Hierarchy of Data
bit----byte----field---record---file---database
3 NF
2 NF + no derived fields
Economic Claim
Expectation of one person to recieve a future inflow of economic resources from another person because of an economic exchange which is presently incomplte
Disadvantages of Database Accounting Systems
Greater Hardware requirements---database software itself---employing a database administrator---system operation becomes critical---incorrect data entry corrupts many users work---territorail disputes over data ownership
1:M
post the primary key for the '1' table as a foreign key in the 'm' table
Expert System Disadvantages
Suitable human experts hard to fine---experts disagree---knowledge elicitation difficult and time consuming---expensive to maintain and modify----potential for deskilling jobs---hard to validate fully---user acceptance

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